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University of Michigan 










The present grammar represents the third stage of an 
experiment which the author has been carrying on in his 
classes, in the attempt to provide the maximum of material 
for oral work, without sacrificing that drill in the elements 
of Grammar which, in his opinion, must form the basis of 
all language study pursued under the artificial conditions 
of the class room. The first stage was the use, for three 
seasons, of a pamphlet of conversation material, the second, 
the use in a class of beginners, of the advance sheets of a 
large share of this book. 

In certain important respects, the result of this experi- 
ment presents a radical departure from the types of gram- 
mar now most in vogue. Detached sentences have been 
used in a few exercises for drill work ; but elsewhere they 
have been discarded because of their failure to provide the 
important element of interest. In their place, connected 
dialogue and description have been introduced, based on a 
carefully selected vocabulary of every-day words, and illus- 
trating the facts of form and syntax which make up the 
first part of each lesson. The sort of foot-note which tells 
the student to "use the subjunctive" or to "omit the arti- 
cle" without telling him why, has been discarded as well. 
The English to Spanish exercise has been banished from 
the current lesson because of the difficulty of doing satis- 
factory composition work with new material. Every fourth 
lesson has been made a composition lesson, containing only 
familiar material in new combinations, and preceded by a 
synopsis of the review on which it is based. 

The grammatical facts about a given part of speech will 
be found somewhat more scattered than is usual, the ar- 
rangement having been determined largely by the desire 
to present as soon as possible the facts of the verb and the 


personal pronoun, and occasionally by the exigencies of the 
connected exercise. Certain matter often given a prominent 
place will be found relegated to the later lessons. A case in 
point is the use of the intimate pronouns and the other 
forms related to them, although the forms themselves are 
given early in the paradigms. Model verbs are not used, 
and the student is made to build up the regular verbs from 
stem and endings. So far as possible, he is made to do 
this also with irregular verbs, whose regular forms are 
omitted from the general section devoted to verbs. This 
section has been reduced to its lowest terms, and should 
not prove at all terrifying to the beginner. The reference 
list of irregular verbs contains only such as might be en- 
countered in the average non-technical text. 

A word as to how the lessons may be used will not be 
out of place here, though in this regard every teacher will 
work out his own salvation. Whether the lessons are found 
to be too long or not, will depend on the character of each 
class, and the length of the recitation period. They may 
be conveniently divided before or after the vocabulary. In 
either case the sentences used to illustrate rules may prop- 
erly be considered to form a part of the first half-lesson. 
As to the oral exercise, the author's practice is as follows. 
The first part is read aloud sentence by sentence by the 
teacher, and translated, with books closed, by members of 
the class. It is then translated orally by the teacher and 
re-translated into Spanish by the class. Next, the questions 
in the last part of the exercise are asked by the teacher and 
answered by the class, and finally, each pupil is made to 
ask a question bearing on the lesson. Whether all or a 
part of this program is carried out, depends upon the other 
work assigned for the hour. The questions are not at all 
exhaustive, and represent only a part of what the ingenious 
teacher can do with the material. On completing the book, 
the method here employed may be used with any text the 
class may be using as a reader. 


In the composition lessons, the synopsis has been found 
a great help in controlling the review, and a full hour may 
be devoted to it if desired. The teacher who feels that these 
lessons do not provide sufficient composition material, may 
pass from them to any good composition book. 

It is hoped that users of this grammar will communi- 
cate freely with the author about desirable changes and 
necessary corrections. It is desired to improve the book 
in every possible way in any future edition. 

The author's sincerest thanks are due to his colleagues, 
Professor James P. Bird and Mr. Herbert A. Kenyan, for 
valuable suggestions and for reading the proof, and to Sr. 
D. Augusto Valenzuela of Bogota and Sr. D. Guillermo 
Fernandez of Mexico City for revising the Spanish exer- 

C. P. W. 

ANN ARBOR, SEPT., 1909. 


In this second edition all errors that have come to my 
notice have been corrected, but no change of plan has seemed 
necessary, and the pagination corresponds to that of the first 
edition. It gives me great pleasure to have this opportunity 
of thanking those teachers who, having seen the first edition, 
have favored me with corrections and suggestions. Among 
them my especial gratitude is due to Dr. Carlos Bransby of 
the University of California. 

C. P. W. 







I. Gender and number of nouns. Definite and indefi- 
nite articles. Possessive Case . * . . 9 

II. The verb. Infinitives. Stem and Endings. Pres- 
ent Indicative. Non-inflection of Spanish noun. 
Indirect object. Word-order . . . .11 

III. Subject pronouns. Tener, tener que and deber. 

Expression of purpose. Word-order . . 16 

IV. Synopsis of review. Composition ... 20 

V. Adjectives, gender, number, agreement, position 
and substantive use. Ser. Numerals i-io. Age. 
Word-order 21 

VI. Past participle. Haber. Perfect tense. Present 
participle. Estar. Comparison of ser and 
estnr 25 

VII. Possessive adjectives and pronouns. Special use 

of masculine plural of nouns and pronouns . 29 

VIII. Synopsis of review. Composition ... 33 

IX. Noun of material. Personal object. Agreement 
of adjectives. Demonstrative adjectives and 
pronouns. Prepositional forms of personal pro- 
nouns. Ir. Idiomatic 34 

X. Object forms of personal pronouns. Position. 
Double pronoun object construction. Poder, 
querer, dccir, hacer. Guslar .... 39 

XI. Imperfect and past definite. Irregular imperfects. 

Orthographical irregularities. The pluperfect . 44 




XII. Synopsis of review. Composition ... 48 

XIII. Reflexive pronouns and verbs. Qut and cudl. Ver. 49 

XIV. Irregular past definites. Infinitives after preposi- 

tions. Numerals 11-39. Tener idiomatic. Time 

of day 54 

XV. Future and conditional. Future and conditional 

perfects. Comparison. Use of the articles . 57 

XVI. Synopsis of review. Composition 61 

XVII. The subjunctive in subject and object clauses. Se- 
quence of tenses. Dependent infinitives . . 62 

XVIII. Radical-changing verbs. Adjectives that lose the 

final letter . 66 

XIX. Constructions with two object pronouns. Neuter 

gender. Dar. Acabar. Omission of articles 70 

XX. Synopsis of review. Composition ... 74 

XXI. Subjunctive in main clauses and as imperative. Ir- 
regular present subjunctives. Inceptive verbs. 
Greeting and leave-taking .... 75 

XXII. Imperfect subjunctives. Conditions contrary to 
fact. Quisiera. Salir and venir. Days, months, 
and seasons 79 

XXIII. Subjunctive in adjective and adverb clauses. In- 

definite negative words. Use of infinitive. The 
weather 83 

XXIV. Synopsis of review. Composition ... 87 

XXV. Future subjunctive. Endings of imperative. More 
orthographical changes. Conocer and saber. 
Cardinal points. Distance. Cualquiera. Agra- 
decer 88 

XXVI. Subjunctive in object clauses. Pedir and comprar. 
Uno. Demonstratives as correlatives. Definite 
articles used for demonstratives and personal 
pronouns. Adverbs in -mente ... 93 














Cardinal numerals. Relative pronouns. Causative 
construction. Object pronouns impersonally 
used. Haber idiomatic. 


Synopsis of review. Composition . . . 102 

Clauses depending on prepositions. Verbs with 
subjunctive or infinitive. Possessive adjectives 
(long forms). Indirect object to express pos- 
session. Parecer, hacer falta, and poner. Tal 103 

Compound tenses of the subjunctive. Compari- 
son. Cuyo. Valer 108 

Irregular use of tenses. The perfect of the past 
definite. Personal objective. Nunca and jamas. 
Si and no. Definite article. Traer . .112 

Synopsis of review. Composition . . . 117 

Hacer in time expressions. Oir. Oir and ver with 
an object and an infinitive. Todo. Impersonal 
verb with indirect object 118 

Position of adjectives. Grande and santo. Otro. 
Cada. Sino. Aun. Dar idiomatic . . . 122 

More about personal pronouns. Reciprocal con- 
struction. Adverbial clauses involving two sub- 
junctives. Impersonal verbs. Andar . . 127 

Synopsis of review. Composition . . .131 

The passive and its substitutes. Estar with the 
past participle. Dejar. Acordarse de and re- 
cordar. Idioms 133 

El cuerpo human o 138 

Omission of indefinite article. Verbs in -uir. Con- 
cluir. Mayor and menor. Joven and viejo. 
Correlatives 140 

Review and composition 143 

Use of the imperative mode. Irregular impera- 
tives. Prometer. Volver a. Jugar. Caer and 
reir . ... 144 



XLJI. Spanish money. Price. Suffixes -era, -eria, -ito, 
-illo, -uelo. Tradncir. Ni and tampoco. Shop- 
ping .... .147 
XLIII. Idiomatic. Dimensions. Prepositions . . 150 

XLIV. Ordinal numerals. Noun construction. Definite 

article. Suffixes of nationality. Caber. Madrid 153 




INDEX 205 



1. The Alphabet. The signs of the Spanish alphabet 
are: a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, (k}, I, 11, m, n, n, 
o, P, q, r, rr, s, t, u, v, (w), x, y, z. 

The combinations ch, II, n, and rr are considered letters of the 
alphabet. They are to be found in the dictionaries after c, I, n, 
and r respectively. 

k and w do not properly belong to the Spanish alphabet. They 
are used in a few foreign words only, k has the sound of English 
k and w that of English v or w. 

Mute or silent letters are common in English. Spanish letters 
are almost invariably pronounced. There are two important ex- 

h is always mute, and must be ignored in pronunciation. 

u is mute if it follows q or g and at the same time precedes 
e or i: that is to say, it is mute in the combinations gue, gui, que, 

2. The Vowels. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u. They 
are graded according to their resonance into strong (a, e, o) 
and weak (i, u) vowels. Each vowel has its distinct, char- 
acteristic sound. 

a has the sound of English a in "father." 
e has the sound of English a in "fate." 
has the sound of English f in "machine." 
o has the sound of English o in "no." 
u has the sound of English oo in "moon." 

Note. It is certain that the vowels sometimes assume flatter, or more 
open sounds than those given above; but as this is the result of purely 
natural causes, such as unaccented position in the word, or proximity of 
other _ sounds that interfere with the full vowel sound, and since the English 
speaking student has a natural tendency to flatten the Spanish vowels, it seems 
advisable to ignore these distinctions here. 


3. Diphthongs and Triphthongs, (a) An English 
diphthong consists of two vowels pronounced as a single 
sound. The Spanish diphthong is a combination of two 
vowels so rapidly pronounced as to make but a single syl- 
lable. The vowels lose little of their individual value. 

(b) Two vowels side by side do not necessarily make a 
diphthong. The only possible diphthongs are composed of 
a strong and a weak vowel (a, e, o, with i, u), or of two 
weak vowels (i with u). The possible combinations are, 
then: ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou, iu, -or, transposing the vowels, 
ia, ie, io, ua, ue, uo, ui. 

(c) When a diphthong stands in an unstressed syllable, 
neither vowel is stressed more than the other. When a 
diphthong stands in a stressed syllable, a decided stress is 
placed on the strong vowel, or, in case the diphthong con- 
sist of two weak vowels, on the second weak vowel. 

(d) A triphthong is a combination of a strong vowel be- 
tween two weak vowels, occurring in a stressed syllable. 
Possible triphthongs are iai, iei, uai, uei, iau. 

(e) The letter y is sometimes found in a diphthong or 
triphthong as the last letter of a word instead of i. Ex.: 
hay, doy, buey. 

4. The Consonants, f, 1, m, n, p, and x need not be 
discussed, since they sound alike in English and Spanish. 

b, v. The English b is made by pressing the lips firmly 
together and violently separating them. In making the 
Spanish b, the pressure is the merest contact, and the re- 
sulting sound is much fainter. It is something between 
our v and w. This sound has a somewhat more explosive 
character after m or n, and when it is uttered emphatically. 
Spanish v is made in the same way as Spanish b, and is 
identical with it in sound, but it is never written before 


ch. This sound is identical with the English ch in 

d is similar to the English sound, but is made by putting 
the tongue against the upper teeth instead of against the 
palate. This different contact gives Spanish d a sound 
very much like English th in "these." 

j has the sound of a very roughly aspirated h. It is 
quite like German ch in "Bach." 

11 has the sound of English Hi in "million." 

n has the sound of English ni in "onion." 

q occurs only in the combinations que, qui, when it has 
the sound of English k. 

r, unlike English r, is made forward near the teeth. It is 
a single roll of the tongue tip. 

rr is a trilled prolongation of Spanish r. 

s has the sound of s in "sister," never that of s in 

t is similar to English t, but, like Spanish d, is made 
against the upper teeth instead of against the palate. 

y has sometimes the consonant value of English y in 
"yes," and is sometimes identical with Spanish i. 
z has the sound of English- mute th in "thing." 

5. c, g. These consonants differ from the other Span- 
ish consonants in that each has two quite different sounds. 

c before a, o, u, or a consonant, has the same sound as 
Spanish qu (English k). 

c before e or i has the sound of Spanish z (English th 
in "thing"). 

g before a, o, u, has the sound of English g in "go." 

g before e or i, has the sound of Spanish j (rough h- 


c, qu, z, g, gu, j, gii. The sounds represented by these 
spellings, and their relation to each other, offer the chief 
difficulty in the spelling of Spanish. The following table 
will help to make these matters clear: 



Before Vowels 

Before Consonant 

a e i o u 

or When Final 








th in "thing" 







gin "go" 







rough h-sound 











Note a. In que, qui, gue, gui, the u is silent, as already stated 
in i. It is merely an orthographical sign-post, to show that the 
preceding consonant is pronounced as before a, o, u. In these com- 
binations, ue and ui do not, of course, make diphthongs. In gue, 
giii, the diaeresis causes the u to be pronounced, and ue, ui are 

Note b. In a few words / or s may be written before e or i. 
Ex.: traje, paje, dije, jeronimo, zigzag, sine, etc. 

6. Syllabification, a. In dividing a word into sylla- 
bles, groups of consonants of which the second is 1 or r, 
may not be separated. Exceptions to this rule are the 
groups rl, si, tl, and sr. 

(Inseparable) la-bra-dor, de-cla-rar, re-fre-nar, re-gla. (Sep- 
arable) es-la-bon, Is-ra-el, At-las, Car-los. 

b. A single consonant between vowels begins a sylla- 
ble, ch, 11, n, IT, and x are considered single consonants. 

me-dal, o-lor, a-tm-go, de-no, pa-na-de-ro, ma-cho, ca-lle, ba-rra, 

c. The second of two consonants not inseparable, un- 
less it be an s, begins a syllable. 

ser-vir, cuan-to, en-ga-no, res-pon-der, ar-so-bis-po, cs-ta-do, 
ins-truc-ci6n, cons-ti-tuir, pers-pi-ca-cia, trans-pi-rar. 

d. The second of two vowels that do not make a diph- 
thong, begins a syllable. 

cre-er, bre-a, co-o-pe-rar, ma-es-tro, pa-is, co-mi-ais, ba-iil. 


e. Spanish compounds are regularly divided according 
lo their elements. 

des-am-pa-ro, nos-otros, vos-otros. 

7. Stress and Accent. The following simple rules for 
determining the stressed syllable of a Spanish word, are 
now universally followed, although a different system pre- 
vails in books issued previous to 1888, at which time these 
rules were fixed by the Spanish Academy. 

a. A word ending in a vowel, or n or s, is regularly stressed 
on the next to the last syllable (penult). 

alto, grande, tierra, aman, imposible, antiguo, venia, fragua, etc. 

b. A word ending in a consonant, other than n or s, is regu- 
larly stressed on the last syllable. 

usted, mujer, abril, vecindad. 

c. Many words are irregular, and do not conform to these 
rules. Such words always "have the syllable to be stressed plainly 
indicated by the acute accent (') over the vowel. 

hable, llego, coini, tendrds, tambicn. (Exceptions to a.) 
hucsped, cardcter, drbol, etc. (Exceptions to &.) 

d. Any word stressed farther back than the next to the last 
syllable, must have the acute accent on the stressed syllable. 

aninta, espiritu, digamelo, timidamente. 

e. Monosyllables regularly require no written accent. 

rey, yo, de, cal. 

f. A written accent placed over a syllable that contains a 
diphthong, falls on the strong vowel, or on the second of two weak 
vowels, in accordance with the principle expressed in 3 c. A triph- 
thong takes the accent over the strong vowel. 

8. The Acute Accent. The acute accent is the only 
accent used in modern Spanish. 

a. The acute accent is used chiefly to point out irregularly 
stressed syllables, as indicated in 7. 

b. It is also used to break up a diphthong: that is, to show 
that contiguous vowels which would normally make a diphthong 
or triphthong (see 3&), belong to different syllables. When used 
in this way the accent stands always over a weak vowel (over the 
first weak in the case of two weaks, over the weak in the case of 
a strong and a weak, and over the first weak of a triphthong). 

haul, pais, impios, fluido, comiais. 


c. It is often used to distinguish two words which are spelled 
and pronounced the same, but which have a different meaning or 

tii, you tit, your 

el, he el, the 

esle, this one este, this (adj.) 

d. It is used by analogy on certain monosyllabic verb-forms. 

vi, fue, etc. 

e. For years it has been customary to write the accent on the 
monosyllables a, 6, u, e, and this practice is followed in this book, 
although the student may leave off these accents in accordance with 
a recent ruling of the Spanish Academy. 

/. It is not necessary to place an accent over a capital letter. 

9. Capitalization. The use of the capitals in Spanish 
is in general the same as in English. 

Exceptions, (a) The pronoun yo, "I," the days of the week, 
the months of the year, and proper adjectives, are not capitalized 
when they stand in the body of a sentence. (&) Adjectives of na- 
tionality used as nouns, may or may not be capitalized, (c) Names 
of languages are not capitalized. Ex. : Los Espaiioles hablan es- 
panol. The Spaniards speak Spanish. 

10. Punctuation. The chief peculiarities of Spanish 
punctuation are: a. Inverted question marks (i) and ex- 
clamation points (i) at the beginning of questions and 
exclamations, b. Use of the dash instead of quotation 
marks in dialogue, c. In an extensive quotation, the use 
of the quotation mark (") at the beginning of each line. 
d. Frequent use of suspension points (...) to indicate an 
incomplete sentence. 

11. Irregularities of Pronunciation. The pronuncia- 
tion of Spanish indicated above, is based on the speech of 
an educated native of Madrid. The Spanish of Spanish- 
America varies somewhat from this standard, but no more 
than the English of London and that of New York differ 
from each other. The peculiarities of American Spanish 
are very readily acquired by anyone who has a tolerable 
facility in the use of the Castilian. 


Any individual words that may be irregular in pronun- 
ciation, will be commented on as they occur in the follow- 
ing lessons. 

12. Some Suggestions, (a) There are many Spanish 
words that are written like the corresponding English words 
of Latin origin. The student, coming across them for the 
first time, has a tendency to pronounce them in the familiar 
way. He may be sure in advance that he is wrong. Such 
words require especial care. 

con-ti-nen-tal, per-so-nal, doc-tor, va-lor, di-ges-tion, re-ti-gion, 
cir-cu-lar, me-tal, cri-sis, ter-mi-nal. 

b. Many English vowels are impure, and end in a glide, as 
can be seen by pronouncing, rather slowly, "can" (ca-un), "spell" 
(spe-ul), "bone" (bo-un). The Spanish vowels are free from this 
glide, and are enunciated with a certain crispness. 

c. In a Spanish word, no matter how long, each vowel has its 
characteristic sound. It does not break down into an indeterminate 
u-sound, as internal vowels often do in English, when not accented. 

ca-rac-te-ris-ti-co, characteristic. 
res-pon-sa-bi-li-dad, responsibility. 
ex-tra-or-di-na-ria-men-te, extraordinarily. 

d. Those who have studied French must be careful not to give 
the syllables an, on, en, etc., the French nasal sound, nor to pro- 
nounce final e as mute, in the syllables de, me, te, se, que, etc. 

e. Always stress a syllable that has a written accent. 

fdcil, dificil, car&cter, nacion, retorico, telcgrafo, telefono, etc. 

/. In writing, remember that doubled consonants almost never 
occur in Spanish. 

inmenso, immense; atencion, attention; aniversario, anniversary; 
afirmar, affirm ; aproxlmar, approximate ; pasando, passing. 


Note. This exercise after being used for oral drill, should be used as 
a dictation exercise. The reason for each written accent should be brought out. 

a, e, i, o, u, f, I, m, n, p, r, s, t: me, le, la, lo, fe, ni, no, en, 
el, un, fil, pan, amo, pena, mono, polo, mula, fano, foro, era, fulano, 
meloso, lesa, liso, panela, minuto, peseta, Teresa, tiro, sumo, ma- 
rino, perulero, tupe, papa, sali, amo, Peru, eran, pusimos. 

ch, h, II, n, r final and initial, rr: chucha, chino, hache, macho, 
hallar, hulla, lloroso, rollo, relleno, pillito, ella, manana, fiapa, pena. 


aiioso, riiie, runar, sanudo, rana, arre, parra, arrimar, marrullero, 
horror, sur, ahora, vehiculo. 

d, b, v, y : boda, beber, bayeta, badila, sabido, fibula, burro, 
madera, red, tened, de, don, maduro, vivir, varonil, voto, revelar, 
pavura, villa, raya, yerro, huye, yema, yo, hoyo. 

c, qu, z, g, gu, j : calle, toco, recuperar, cecina, decimo, racimo, 
duque, maquina, caza, zurron, zizaiia, haz, coz, pagar, logico, geologo, 
guerra, guijo, guiar, caja, jamon, majadero, judicar, figura, Jesus, 
jiba, zero, cero, zorro, mazo, jumelos, quemar, gula. 

Inseparable consonant groups : tabla, blando, brazo, abrasar, 
clima, tecla, crocodile, necrosis, drama, padre, flor, franela, peri- 
frasis, gloton, miraglo, grena, vinagre, pluma, aplomo, profeta, 
apretado, tren, patrono. 

Separable consonant groups : esbelto, escaldar, esforzar, es- 
grima, eslabon, esmalta, esparcido, esquela, esquina, estanco, Car- 
lota, doctor, empresa, hombre, manzana, olmo, fornido. ordenes, 
alerta, cesante, excepto, apto, burgo, expansive, atlantico, balcon, 
alhaja, falange, carbon, dando, hermano, designar, tratarse, honra, 
conyugal, vplvera, ensalzaba, ninfa, golpe, albergue, parezca, or- 
questa, servir, ennegrecer, aceder, adlatere, admirar, dogma, himno, 
anhelo, monjita, Archena, rasgo, enfado, inmenso, inquisidor, plazga, 
Jorge, envolver, Elche. 

transcurrir, esclavo, escribir, esdrujulo, explosion, transparen- 
tar, obscuro, exclamar, transformacion, complacer, entrar, pamfleta, 

Diphthongs and triphthongs: retraimiento, baile, reinado, boina, 
caudillo, jaula, reunion, deuda, ciudad, Miura, familia, viaja, bou, 
sociedad, nadie, tierra, prestigio, dio, perpetua, guardarropa, cuando, 
frecuentar, nuevas, agiiero, antiguo, virtuosa, cuota, ruidoso, Luis, 
argitir, fiais, apreciais, aprecieis, averiguais, averigiieis, Miau, hay, 
voy, rey, muy, guay, buey, influencia, Biblia, eleccion, monstruo. 

Non-diphthongs: Bilbao, maestro, Joaquin, coexistir, Icon, idea, 
creeme, loor, pais, creimos, oido, baul, todavia, varien, continue, 
piia, duo, impios, fluido, huiais. 

Names of letters of the alphabet: a, be, ce, che, de, e, efe, ge, 
hache, i, jota, (ka), ele, elle, eme, ene, ene, o, pe, cu, ere, erre, ese, 
te, u, ve, (doble ve), equis, y griega, zeta. 



Remark. All words given in this lesson should be memorized. 

13. Gender of Nouns. Spanish nouns, including the 
names of things, have either masculine or feminine gender. 
Some nouns give us a clue to their gender, in their form, 
or their meaning. 

Note. For the benefit of those who have studied French or Latin, it 
may be stated that the gender of the Spanish noun is generally that of the 
related French noun, and that of the Latin noun, except that Latin neuters 
are masculine in Spanish. 

a. Most nouns that end in o are masculine. Most nouns that 
end in a are feminine. The most important exceptions are mono, 
f., "hand," and dia, m., "day." 

b. The names of male beings are masculine, and the names of 
female beings are feminine. 

c. Names of female beings are often like the corresponding 
names of male beings, except that they end in o. 

hermano, brother hermana, sister 

hijo, son -^ H) hija, daughter 

muchacho, boy muchacha, girl 

nino, child (male) nina, child (female) 

senor, gentleman -senora, lady 

maestro, teacher (man) maestro, teacher (woman) 

14. Plural of Nouns. In general, Spanish nouns form 
their plural by adding ^ or es to the singular according to 
the following rules: 

a. Nouns ending in a vowel (or diphthong) add s: 

hijo, hijos; hermana, hermanas. 

b. Nouns ending in a consonant (including y) add es: 

senor, senores. 

c. As s does not regularly stand before e, nouns ending in 
this letter must change z to c before adding es. (See 5.) 

voz. voice; "voces, voices. 


15. Definite Article. The definite article, "the" in Eng- 
lish, has the following forms: 

Masculine. Singular el. Plural los. 
Feminine. Singular la. Plural las. 

a. The definite article always precedes the noun it modifies, 
and regularly agrees with it in number and gender. 

el senor, la maestra, los muchachos, las hijas. 
Note. The noun agua, "water," and all feminine singular nouns 
that begin with stressed a or ha, require the masculine article el 
instead of the feminine la, thus : el agua. This violation of the rules 
of agreement is to avoid the unpleasant prolongation of the a- 

b. The preposition de, "of, from," followed by el, contracts 
with it to del. The preposition a, "to," followed by el, contracts 
with it to al. 

16. Indefinite Article. The indefinite article, English 
"a, an," like the definite article, precedes its noun and agrees 
with it. It has but two forms : un, masculine singular, and 
una, feminine singular. 

un nifio, una niiia. 

a. In English the article (both definite and indefinite), may 
be made to serve two or more nouns. In Spanish, the articles must 
be repeated before each noun : 

El nifio y la niiia. The boy and girl. 

Una senora y un senor. A lady and gentleman. 

17. Possessive Case. As the Spanish noun has no 
special form for the possessive, it is necessary to employ 
the preposition de to express this relation thus: el som- 
brero de la nina, the child's hat ; las Hares del muchaclw, the 
boy's flowers. 


Give the gender of the following nouns: 
libro, book padre, father 

casa, house mesa, table 

hombre, man dinero, money 

perro, dog presidente, president 


Give the plurals of the following nouns, and of those already 
learned, and give the reason for the plural form: 
close, f., class, recitation comcdor, m., dining-room 

sombrero, m., hat rey, m., King 

flor, f., flower lengua, f, language 

despacho, m., sitting-room, office voz, f., voice 

Translate orally into English : i. El comedor del rey. 2. Los 
libros de los maestros. 3. Las voces de las ninas. 4. El padre 
de la muchacha. 5. De la clase a la casa. 6. Del presidente al 
rey. 7. Del despacho a la clase. 8. Las clases del dia. 9. La 
mesa del comedor. 10. Los perros del nifio. 

Translate orally into Spanish : I. The King's son. 2. From 
the dining-room to the sitting-room. 3. A boy of the class. 4. A 
man's sister. 5. The gentlemen's books. 6. The girl's hands. 
7. The children's father. 8. A president's brother. 9. The lan- 
guage of the gentlemen. 10. The ladies' money. 


18. The Verb, Infinitives, the Three Conjugations. 

The Spanish verb has more forms than the English verb. 
The name of the verb, and the form by which it is to be 
found in the vocabularies, is the infinitive. All Spanish in- 
finitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir. 

hablar, to speak; comer, to eat; vivir, to live. 
Verbs are grouped into three conjugations on the basis of the 
three infinitive endings. Verbs of the first conjugation (-ar verbs) 
differ widely in form from verbs of the second (-er verbs) and 
third (-ir verbs) conjugations. Verbs of the second and third con- 
jugations are conjugated alike in all but four forms out of fifty- 

19. Stem and Endings. The stem of a verb may be 
found by cutting off the infinitive ending. 

habl- com- viv- 

To this stem, which we shall call the stem of the infini- 
tive, are added the "endings," which express distinctions of 
person, number, tense, and mode. 



20. Regular and Irregular Verbs. A regular verb 
is one, all of whose forms may be derived from the infini- 
tive : i. e., all of whose forms may be made by adding ap- 
propriate endings to the stem of the infinitive. An irregular 
verb may have more than one stem, or it may have "irreg- 
ular" endings. 

21. The Present Indicative. The endings for the 
present tense, indicative mode, are: 























Applying these endings to stems of regular verbs, we get 

hablo, L speak 
hablas, you speak 

como, I eat 
comes, you eat 

habla, he speaks, she come, he eats, 


hablamos, we speak 
habldis, you speak 
hablan, they speak 


comemos, we eat 
comeis, you eat 
comen, they eat. 

vivo, I live 
vives, you live 
she vive, he lives, 


vivimos, we live 
vivis, you live 
viven, they live 


Note. It is clear from these models that the endings express the number 
and person of the subject of the verb, and in this respect perform the func- 
tion of the personal pronouns, which are usually omitted. If the subject of a 
verb is a noun, the verb agrees with it in number. 

El discipulo estudia mucho. The pupil studies a great deal. 

Los discipulos estudian mucho. The pupils study a great deal. 


In similar way form the present indicative of each of the verbs 
given in the vocabulary. Repeat orally. 

Note. In conjugating orally the learner shou]d consider most carefully 
the stress of each verb form. In the present indicative the stress falls on 
the stem in all forms except the first and second persons plural. 

22. Use of the Present Indicative. The forms of the 
present indicative express, not only simple statements in 


present time, but also the emphatic present, expressed in 
English by the auxiliary "do," "does," and the progressive 
present (Eng., "I am speaking," etc.). 

hablamos, we speak, we are speaking, we do speak. 

23. Non-inflection of Spanish Noun. The Spanish 
noun does not vary in form to express the objective (accus- 
ative) case, the possessive (genitive) case, or the indirect 
objective (dative) case. Its form is the same whether used 
as subject, direct or indirect object of a verb, or object of 
a preposition. (For the possessive see 17.) 

24. Noun as Indirect Object. The noun used as in- 
direct object of a verb, is preceded by the preposition a, 
"to," or para, "for." 

Juan compra el libra para Maria. John buys the book for Mary. 
Juan lleva el libra a Maria. John takes the book to Mary. 

Note. These prepositions are never omitted as their equivalents often 
are in English. 

John buys Mary the book. 
John takes Mary the book. 

25. Word-order, a. Affirmative. The normal order 
of the simple affirmative sentence is: subject (if expressed), 
verb, object (if any). 

Maria compra libra s. Mary buys books. 
Compramos tin sombrero. We are buying a hat. 

b. Interrogative. An affirmative sentence is made in- 
terrogative by inverting the order of subject and verb. 
jCompra Maria librosf Is Mary buying books? 

If no subject is expressed, the order is the same as in 
the affirmative sentence. Question marks or the inflection 
of the voice show that the sentence is interrogative. 

jCompran un sombrero para Juan? Are they buying a hat for 


In an interrogative sentence, if the subject of the verb 
is not a pronoun, the object may come before the subject, 
particularly if it be shorter than the subject. 

jCompra libros el hijo del maestro? Is the teacher's son buy- 
ing books? 

c. Negative. An affirmative or an interrogative sen- 
tence may be made negative by placing the adverb no be- 
fore the verb. 

Maria no compra libros. Mary does not buy books. 

jNo compran un sombrero para Juan? Are they not buying a 
hat for John? 

Note. In English, sentences are made interrogative or negative with the 
help of the auxiliary "do." There is no equivalent for this auxiliary in 
Spanish. In negative sentences, no must be translated "no" or "not," accord- 
ing to the sentence. 



aprender, to learn. 

bajar, to go down, to come down. 

beber, to drink. 

cantar, to sing. 

comer, to eat. 

comprar, to buy. 

correr, to run. 

entrar en, to go into, to come 


escribir, to write. 
estudiar, to study. 
fumar, to smoke. 
hablar, to speak, to talk. 
hollar, to find. 
llevar, to bring, to take,- (= 

carry) . 

to mar, to take. 
trabajar, to work. 
vivir, to live. 


dlscipulo, -a, pupil. 
Juan, John. 

lection, f., lesson. 
Maria, Mary. 
sciior, -a, Sir, Madam. 
tienda, store, shop.* 


aqui, here. 

bien, well. 

demasiado, too, too much. 

mal, badly. 

mucho, much, a great deal 

no, no, not. 

poco, little. 

si, yes. 

tambien, also. 


con, with. 
en, in, on. 
para, for. 


6, or. 
pero, but. 
y, and. 

'Gender of nouns in vocabularies is not indicated, if regular. (See 13.) 



(a). Aprendo bien. i Aprendes bien? iNo aprendes bien? 
No aprendo bien. i Canto bien? No cantas mal. iNo canto mal? 
Cantas bien. Juan corre mucho. i Corre mucho? iNo corre Juan 
mucho? Juan no corre mucho. Maria estudia poco. iEstudia 
Maria poco? iVivimos aqui? Vivis aqui. iNo escribimos? No 
escribis. Los muchachos trabajan. iTrabajan los muchachos? Las 
muchachas trabajan tambien. iTrabajan las muchachas tambien? 
iEstudiais 6 trabajais? Estudiamos y trabajamos. 

(fc). El maestro vive aqui. El maestro baja al comedor. Come 
y bebe. Fuma pero no fuma demasiado. Entra en el despacho. 
Halla dinero en la mesa. Lleva el dinero a una tienda. Compra 
libros con el dinero. Compra libros para los discipulos. Lleva los 
libros de la tienda a la clase. Los discipulos toman los libros de 
las manos del maestro. Estudian en los libros. Estudian las lec- 
ciones. Aprenden una lengua. Los ninos aprenden bien, pero las 
ninas aprenden mal. Maria habla demasiado y estudia poco : corre 
y canta y escribe en el libro del maestro. 
(c). iVive el maestro aqui? 

Si, senor, el maestro vive aqui. 

iBaja el maestro al despacho? 

No, senor. El maestro baja al comedor. 

i Fuma mucho el maestro ? 

No, senora : pero come y bebe mucho. 

i Comes mucho? 

iNo fumais demasiado? 

i Halla el maestro dinero en el comedor? 

i Lleva el maestro el dinero a la clase? 

i Compra flores en la tienda? 

iNo compran los discipulos flores para el maestro? 

i Compra el maestro un sombrero Icon el dinero? 

iEstudiais una lengua? 

i Estudiamos en el comedor, 6 en el despacho? 

i Aprendes bien 6 mal? 




26. Personal Pronouns used as Subject. The per- 
sonal pronouns have different forms, according as they are 
used as subject or object. The forms used as subject follow : 






j "intimate" 

| "ordinary" 

61, m., ella, f. 

he, she, (it) 


nosotros, in., nosotras, f. 



j "intimate" 
) "ordinary" 

vosotros, m., vosotras, f. 




ellos, m., ellas, j. 


27. Use of the Subject Pronouns. 

a. We have nothing in English corresponding to the so-called 
"intimate" forms of the second person singular and plural. They 
correspond more nearly to the German du and ihr, and French in. 
They are used in addressing near relatives and intimate friends, 
as well as animals and inferiors. Since they might be used but 
rarely by foreigners in Spain, they will occur but rarely in this 
book. Naturally, the student will find them constantly in his read- 

b. Usted and ustedes are the pronouns of ordinary address. 
They are used with the third person singular and plural of the 
verb, respectively. 

Usted habla mucho. You talk a great deal. 
Ustedes comen poco. You eat little. 

Note. The reason for this peculiar usage is that usted is derived from 
two words meaning "your grace. A similar use prevails in English, with 

Your grace has ..., Your Majesty is .... etc. 

c. Usted and ustedes are commonly abbreviated V., VV., or 
Vd., Yds. 

d. With the exception of usted and ustedes, the subject pro- 
nouns agree with their verb in person and number. 


e. Since names of things have grammatical gender in Spanish, 
it is clear that el and ella, when referring to things, are translated 
by English "it." 


Conjugate orally any verb in Lesson II, placing before each 
form the corresponding subject-pronoun or pronouns. Yo trabajo, 
etc. Conjugate negatively, Yo no trabajo, etc. Conjugate interrog- 
atively, j Trabajo yo? etc., and both negatively and interrogatively, 
jNo trabajo yo? etc. 

28. Omission of Subject Pronouns. Since the verb- 
ending makes clear, in most cases, the person and number 
of the subject, the subject pronoun is often omitted. It 
must be expressed, however, when it is not perfectly clear 
what the subject is, and also to bring out emphasis or con- 
trast. Usted and nstedes are generally expressed, even 
where there is no ambiguity. If they stand as subject of 
more than one verb, they are commonly expressed but once. 

Aprendo. Estudiamos. Trabafdis y estudidis. 
El canta pero ella no canta. (Expressed for contrast.) 
Juan y Maria ir aba Jan. El estudia tambien. (Not clear with- 
out pronoun.) 

Usted habla. Usted habla y escribe. 
iHabla y escribe usted? 

29. The irregular verb tencr. Tener, "to have," ex- 
presses ownership or temporary possession. It is quite ir- 


1. tengo, I have i. tenemos, we have 

2. tiencs, you have 2. teneis, you have 

3. tiene, he has, she has, you 3. ticnen, they have, you have 

30. English "must" and "ought." 

a. Obligation and compulsion are expressed in Spanish 
by some form of tener, followed by que, and an infinitive. 
Tengo que comer ahora. I must eat now. 
jTiene que estudiar? Does he have to study? 
Tienen que trabajar. They have to work. 


b. Duty or moral obligation is expressed by the regular 
verb deber, and an infinitive. 

Usted debe aprender una lengua. You ought to learn a lan- 

Debemos estudiar la leccidn. We should study the lesson. 

31. Para with Infinitive. Purpose may be expressed 
by para and the infinitive. 

El nifio estudia para aprender. The child studies to (in order 
to) learn. 

32. Interrogative Word-order. If a sentence contains 
an interrogative word, it generally begins the sentence. 

jPor que estudia listed ahoraf Why do you study now? 
jDonde vive el muchacho? Where does the boy live? 
iQue compra el maestro? What is the teacher buying? 

32A. English indefinite some and any are not expressed 
in Spanish. 

Tengo tiores. I have some flowers. 

Maria no tiene libros. Mary hasn't any (= has no) books. 


VERBS. pisarron, m., blackboard. 

deber, to owe, "ought." sustantivo noun. 

desear, to wish, want. verbo, verb. 
ensenar, to teach. ADVERBS. 

entrar, to go in, come in (in- a hora now 

transitive). antes,' first.' 

stgmficar, to mean, signify. despues, afterwards. 

tener, to have. hoy to-day. 

tener que, to have to, must. 

terminar, to finish, end. 

porque, because (conj.). 

NOUNS. Ho/o/ Hello! (interjection.) 

amigo, -a, friend. que? what? (interrogative ad- 

carta, letter. jective or pronoun.) 

ejercicio, exercise. par que? why? (interrogative 

Espana, Spain. adverb.) 

espanol, m., Spanish ddnde? where? (interrogative 

ingles, m., English. adverb.) 

Jose, Joseph. quienf who? whom? (interrog- 

palabra, word. ative pronoun.) 



(a). iQue tengo? Usted tiene un sombrero. iQue tiene 
usted? Tengo un perro. iQue tiene Maria? Maria tiene la carta. 
iTenemos amigos? Ustedes tienen amigos y amigas. iNo tienen 
ustedes hermanos? Tenemos una hermana. i Tiene el maestro dis- 
cipulos? El maestro tiene discipulos y la maestra tiene discipulas. 
(&) iQue desea usted? Deseo entrar. iPor que desea usted 
entrar? Deseo entrar porque deseo hablar con Jose. Jose escribe 
en el despacho. jHola! Jose, i Escribe usted el ejercicio para el 
maestro? No, sefior. Escribo una carta. iA quien escribe usted 
la carta? Escribo la carta a un amigo. iDonde vive el amigo? 
iVive aqui? Vive en Espana. iNo tiene usted que estudiar hoy? 
Si; pero antes deseo terminar la carta. Usted debe estudiar ahora 
y terminar la carta despues. 

(c). iQue ensena el maestro? El maestro ensena una lengua. 
iQue lengua ensena el maestro? El maestro ensena espanol. iA 
quien ensena espanol el maestro? Ensefia espanol a los discipulos. 
iDonde escribe las palabras? Escribe las palabras en el pizarron. 
i Escribe ingles 6 espanol? Escribe espanol. iQue palabras es- 
cribe? Escribe las palabras sustantivo y verbo. iQue significan 
sustantivo y verbo en ingles? Sustantivo significa "noun" y verbo 
significa "verb." 

(d). iQue desea el sefior? 

iDonde desea el sefior entrar? 

iCon quien desea hablar? 

iA quien escribe Jose? 

iPor que no estudia? 

iPor que no estudia antes? 

iNo debe trabajar antes? 

i Tiene que trabajar despues? 

iQue aprendemos? 

iQue lengua aprendemos? 

i Quien ensena espanol? 

iEstudiamos ingles 6 espanol? 

iQue significa "casa" en ingles? 

iQue significa "blackboard" en espanol? 

iQue lengua habla el maestro? 

iHabla ingles el discipulo? 

i Habla usted espanol? 




Note. The figures in heavy type refer to the paragraphs of the fore- 
going lessons. 

ARTICLE (a) indefinite, forms and use, (16) 

(b) definite, forms and use, (15) 
NOUN (a) gender, (13) 

(b) number, (14) 

(c) case, (17, 23, 24) 
PRONOUN Personal (a) subject forms, (26) 

(b) use, (27) 

(c) omission, (28) 
VERB regular, (a) infinitives, stem, endings, (18, 19, 20) 

(b) present indicative, forms and use, (21, 22) 
irregular, (a) tener, present indicative, (29) 
MISCELLANEOUS Word-order, (25, 32) 

"Must" and "ought," (30) 
Para with infinitive, (31) 


Turn into Spanish. I. The boy learns the lessons. 2. The 
girls go into the store. 3. A girl writes a letter to a friend. 4. A 
pupil writes an exercise. 5. We buy flowers for Mary. 6. The 
children carry the book to the class. 7. The teacher's son finds 
money on the table. 8. He buys a hat with the money. 9. The 
King does not smoke too much. 10. Does John smoke a great 
deal? n. I am working and you (intimate sing.) are working 
also. 12. Are you studying (ordinary sing.) in order to learn? 
13. Does the lady's friend live here? 14. He speaks English and 
she speaks Spanish. 15. The children ought to come in now. 
16. We (fern.) have a sister and you (intimate plu.) have a broth 
er. 17. Must I sing for the teacher? 18. Do you wish (ordinary 
plu.) to come in? 19. I have to go down to the sitting-room 
to finish the letter. 20. You should (intimate phi.) write the words 
on the blackboard. 21. What does the word mean ? 22. What lan- 
guage do you teach? 23. To whom are you bringing the water? 
24. Why does the dog not come in? 25. The boys and girls are 
studying with the teacher. 26. Where do they (fern.) live? 
27. Are you not running (intimate sing.) too much? 28. Where 
do they (masc.) write the words "noun" and "verb"? 29. Is not 

I^SSON V 21 

Joseph now living in Spain? 30. We are coming in because we 
ought to study to-day. 31. You (intimate />/u.) sing well, but they 
(fern.) sing badly. 32. I have some books. 33. John has not 
any classes to-day. 


33. Agreement of Adjectives. An adjective varies 
in form for gender and number, and must agree in gender 
and number with the noun it modifies. 

una nina buena, a good girl; nifios buenos, good boys. 

34. Plural of Descriptive Adjectives. Descriptive ad- 
jectives form their plural in the same way as nouns. (See 


americano, americanos; ingles, ingleses; fdcil, fdciles. 

35. Gender of Descriptive Adjectives. Most descrip- 
tive adjectives end in o in the masculine singular, and 
change o to a to form the feminine singular. 

bueno, buena; malo, mala. 

Those which do not end in o in the masculine, do not change 
to form the feminine, but remain the same. 

tin muchacho grande; una nina grande. 

a. An important exception is that an adjective signifying na- 
tionality, if it ends in a consonant, adds a to the masculine to form 
the feminine. 

espanol, espanola, Spanish. 

frances, francesa, French. 

36. Position of Descriptive Adjectives. Descriptive 
adjectives regularly follow the noun they modify. 

o. Otro, "other," "another," and all adjectives of quantity pre- 
cede their noun. 

otro libra espanol, another Spanish book. 
muchos libros, many books. 


b. When two adjectives of equal value modify the same noun, 
they follow it, and are connected with each other by the conjunc- 
tion y (c before a word beginning with i or hi). 

un libra grande y hermoso, a large handsome book. 

c. In case the adjectives are of unequal value, the one which 
comes nearest the noun in English, follows the Spanish noun, and 
the other precedes it. In general adjectives of unequal value may 
be recognized by the fact that if connected by y the result is non- 

el hermoso ntuchacho frances, the handsome French boy. 

37. Adjectives used as Nouns. Adjectives are often 
used substantively accompanied by the appropriate definite 
article, the noun modified being implied. 

Usted tiene el libra bueno y yo tengo el mala. You have the 
good book and I have the bad one. 

LOS aplicados trabajan y las perezosos no trabajan. The indus- 
trious work, and the lazy do not work. 

Los Espaiioles viven en Espdna. The Spanish live in Spain. 

a. Adjectives of nationality may be used substantively for the 
name of a language. They then take the masculine article, which 
is generally omitted however after the prepositions en or de; also 
after the verbs hablar, aprender, enseiiar, cstudiar and escribir, 
unless an adverb stands between the verb and the adjective, in 
which case the article is used. 

El ingles es dificil. English is hard. 

Escribimos el ejercicio en espanol. We are writing the exer- 
cise in Spanish. 

El maestro de espanol tiene muchos discipulos. The teacher 
of Spanish has many pupils. 

El senor habla ingles y espanol. The gentleman speaks Eng- 
lish and Spanish. 

Nosotros aprendemos frances. We are learning French. 

El discip'itlo habla bien el ingles. The pupil speaks English 

38. The verb ser. The present indicative of the irreg- 
ular verb ser, "to be," is as follows : 


1. soy, I am i. somos, we are 

2. eres, you are 2. so is, you are 

3. es, he (she, it) is, you are 3. son, they are, you are 


Note. English "it is," impersonal, is expressed in Spanish by 
es, without a pronoun; but the Spaniard does not use the imper- 
sonal es in replying to the question jQuien es? "Who is it?" The 
Spanish usage follows : 

It is I Yo soy "] ( Soy yo 

It is you Usted es I or ! Es usted 

It is we Nosotros somos \ ] Somos nosotros 

It is they, etc. Ellos son {.Son ellos 

Is it you? jEs usted? etc. 

39. Numerals. The cardinal numerals from one to 
ten are: uno (fern, una), dos, tres, cuatro, cinco, seis, 
siete, ocho, nueve, diez. They are uninflected, excepting 
uno, and stand before their noun. 

Note. The masculine uno loses its final o when used with a 

un libra 

40. Idiomatic. Age. Age is expressed in Spanish by 
the idiomatic use of tener. 

jCudntos aiios tiene usted? How old are you? (Literally, 
How many years have you?) 

Tengo ocho anos. I am eight years old. (Literally, I have 
eight years.) 

41. Word-order. In an interrogative sentence, a pred- 
icate adjective regularly comes between the verb and the 
subject, if the subject be a noun. 

jEs alemdn el ninof Is the child German? 

jSon aplicados los discipulos? Are the pupils diligent? 

jEs usted ingles? Are you English? 


Turn into Spanish: A good boy; a pretty girl; a diligent 
pupil; difficult lessons; the French teachers; Spanish children; 
German words ; long letters ; the small class ; handsome stores ; a 
large house; easy languages; another day; the other hand; how 
many books? how much money? many friends. 




llamar, to call, knock. 
tratar, to treat. 


ano, year. 
capitulo, chapter. 
close, f., class, kind. 
gramdtica, grammar. 
Luis, Louis. 
pagina, page. 
regla, rule. 


al 'contrario, on the contrary. 
alii, there. 
manana, to-morrow. 
muy, very. 

pasado maiiana, day after to- 
un poquito, a little bit. 


de quien? of whom, whose? 

alentdn, -a, German. 
americano, -a, American. 
aplicado, -a, industrious. 
bonito, -a, pretty. 
bueno, -a, good. 
corto, -a, short. 
cudnto, -a? how much? 
cudntos, -asf how many? 
dificil, hard, difficult. 
espanol, -a, Spanish. 
fdcil, easy. 
frances, -a, French* 
grande, big, large, 
hermoso, -a, handsome. 
ingles, -a, English. 
largo, -a, long. 
malo, -a, bad. 
otro, -a, other, another. 
pequeno, -a, little, small. 
peresoso, -a, lazy. 


mucho, -a, much. 

muchos, -as. many. 

que, which, that, (relative pron.) 


(a). Los ninos estudian en un libro. Tienen un libro grande 
y hermoso. Es el libro de Luis (or el libro es de Luis). Es un 
libro de gramatica. Los ninos son aplicados. Estudian la leccion 
para manana. Estudian el capitulo que trata del sustantivo. El 
capitulo es largo. Tienen que aprender dos paginas de reglas. Las 
reglas no son dificiles. Al contrario son muy faciles. El libro 
trata de gramatica espanola pero las reglas son en ingles. Los ninos 
son ingleses pero estudian espanol. Hablan espanol un poquito 
pero no muy bien. Uno de los ninos tiene ocho anos y el otro 
tiene diez. Son hermanos. Hoy tienen dos clases y manana tienen 
cuatro. La maestra de los ninos es pequena pero bonita. Muchos 
de los discipulos de la maestra son buenos, otros son malos y 

(fc). iQue tienen los ninos alii? 

i Tienen un libro pequeno? 

iDe quien es el libro? 


iQue clase de libra es? 
iSon perezosos los nines? 
iEstudian la leccion de hoy? 
i Que capitulo estudian ? 
iEs largo el capitulo? 

iCuantas paginas de reglas tienen que aprender? 
iSon faciles las reglas? 

iTrata el libro de gramatica francesa 6 espanola? 
iCuantas clases tienen los ninos hoy? 
iCuantas tienen manana? 
iCuantos anos tienen los ninos? 
i Tienen los ninos hermanos? 
iEs grande la maestra de los ninos? 
iQue clase de discipulos tiene la maestra? 
(c). iSoy americano 6 espanol? 
iEs americano el nino? 
iHabla ingles 6 espanol? 
iEs usted espanol 6 frances? 
iQue somos nosotros? 
i Tiene usted muchos amigos franceses? 
iCuantos amigos franceses tiene usted? 
i Tienen los discipulos un maestro aleman 6 americano? 
i Son americanos 6 alemanes los muehachos? 


42. Past Participle. Regular verbs of the first conju- 
gation form their past participles by adding -ado to the 
stem of the infinitive. Verbs of the second and third con- 
jugations add -ido. 

hablado, spoken ; vivido, lived ; tenido, had ; comido, eaten ; 
sido, been. 

a. The irregular past participle of escribir is escrito. 

43. The auxiliary haber. The irregular verb habcr, 
"to have," is chiefly used as an auxiliary in the formation 
of compound tenses of other verbs. 



1. he, 1 have, etc. i. hemos, we have, etc. 

2. has 2. habeis 
3- ha 3. han 

a. There is also a form of the third person, hay, which is 
used impersonally to mean "there is," "there are." 

Hay una mesa en el comedor. There is a table, etc. 
Hay muchos discipulos en la close. There are many, etc. 

44. The Perfect Tense. The perfect tense is a com- 
pound tense formed from the present indicative of haber, 
and the past participle of the verb to be inflected. The use 
of this tense corresponds in the main to that of the English 
present perfect, but it may be used instead of a simple past 


(I have eaten, I have been eating, I ate.) 

1. he comido i. hemos comido 

2. lias comido . 2. habeis comido 

3. ha comido . 3. han comido 

a. The auxiliary verb must not be separated from its parti- 

No hemos tenldo tiempo. We have not had time. 

jNo han estudiado los ninos? Have the children not been 

45. The Present Participle. Verbs of the first conju- 
gation regularly form their present participle by adding the 
ending -ando to the stem of the infinitive. Verbs of the 
second and third conjugations add -iendo. The present 
participles never change in form. 

hablando, speaking; comiendo, eating; vvviendo, living; siendo, 
being; temendo, having. 

46. The irregular verb estar. The present indicative 
of the verb estar, "to be" is as follows : 


1. estoy, 1 am, etc. i. eslamos, we are, etc. 

2. estds 2. estais 

3. estd 3. estdn 

The present and past participles of estar are regular. 


47. Comparison of ser and estar. These verbs, though 
both mean "to be," are not used interchangeably. 

A. Estar is used : 

a. To express a condition or quality that is temporary or acci- 
dental : 

Estoy cansado. I am tired. 

El agua estd calient e. The water is warm. 

iComo estd ustedf How are you? 

b. To express "place where" or position, whether permanent 
or temporary : 

El hombre estd en Paris. The man is in Paris. 

El cuarto estd en la casa. The room is in the house. 

jDonde estd el maestro f Where is the teacher? 

c. With the present participle to express continued action. 
Estoy comiendo. I am eating. 

Usted estd escribiendo. You are writing. 

B. Ser is used : 

a. To express a condition or quality that is permanent or in- 
herent : 

La maestro, es bonita. The teacher is pretty. 
jEs fdcil la leccion? Is the lesson easy? 

b. With a predicate noun or pronoun : 

Los senores son amigos. The gentlemen are friends. 
Madrid es una ciudad. Madrid is a city. 
jQuien es ustedf Who are you? 

c. To express ownership, material or origin : 
El sombrero es de paja. The hat is of straw. 

El sombrero es de usted. The hat belongs to you. 
La carta es de Espana. The letter is from Spain. 

d. In impersonal expressions : 

iEs tardef No, es temprano. Is it late? No, it is early. 

Note a. Cases arise in connection with the use of ser and 
estar, where the Spaniard takes a different viewpoint from our 
own : as in the expression, La senora es joven, "The lady is young." 
where we look upon youth as a temporary quality. Such exceptions 
to the rules given are rare, and will be acquired by practice only. 

Note b. Some adjectives have different meanings according as 
they are used with ser or estar. The commonest are these : 
ser bueno, to be good estar bucno, to be well 

ser mala, to be bad estar malo, to be sick 

ser cansado, to be tiresome estar cansado, to be tired 

ser triste, to be a dull person estar triste, to be sad 



REMARK. Words in vocabularies will from now on be arranged 

arriba, adv., up-stairs. Luisa, Louise. 
bastante, adv., enough, plenty, madre, mother. 

quite. Madrid, Madrid. 

biblioteca, library, study. paja, straw. 

calient c, warm, hot. Paris, Paris. 

cansado, -a, tired. preparar, to prepare. 

ciudad, f., city. quienesf who? (plur. of quien?) 

cocina, kitchen. repasar, to review, go over. 

comof how? subir, to go up, come up. 

cuarto, room. tarde, adv., late. 

chocolate, m., chocolate. temprano, adv., early. 

del todo, adv., at all. todavia, adv., still, yet. 

desayuno, breakfast. tostada, piece of toast. 

enfermo, -a, ill, sick. tostadas, f. plu., toast 

frio, -a, cold. triste, sad. 

listo, -a, ready. ya, adv., already. 


(a). Maria, <;d6nde esta usted? Estoy en la cocina. ^Esta 
usted trabajando? Estoy preparando el chocolate para Juan. ^-No 
ha bajado Juan todavia? Si; esta en el despacho (la biblioteca) 
con Luisa. ^Estan repasando la leccion de hoy? Ella esta estu- 
diando y el esta escribiendo una carta. iEsta listo el desayuno? El 
chocolate y las tostadas estan en la mesa. 

(6). Es tarde ya y Juan no ha bajado todavia. iDonde esta 
madre? Esta arriba. Ha subido al cuarto de Juan. Madre, ipor- 
que no baja Juan? No esta bueno del todo. Esta enfermo (or 
esta malo). <;Hay agua caliente? En la cocina hay bastante. 
(c). <;Es temprano? 

iDonde esta Maria? 

iQue esta preparando en la cocina? 

,; Para quien esta preparando el desayuno ? 

^Donde esta el cuarto de Juan? 

,; Quien esta arriba con Juan? 

i Por que no ha bajado Juan todavia? 

iComo esta el nino? 

iEs malo el nino 6 esta enfermo? 

i Por que ha tenido madre que subir al cuarto de Juan? 


(d). <;D6nde estamos? 

iPor que estamos aqui? 
iQue estamos estudiando? 
iCuanto hemos aprendido? 
iCuantas lecciones hemos estudiado? 
.jCuantos libros hay en la mesa del maestro? 
iCuantas muchachas hay en la clase? 
iHay muchachos tambien? iCuantos? 
^En que ciudad estamos? 
iHa estado usted en Paris? 
;Ha estudiado usted f ranees? 

48. Possessive Adjectives. 





mi, m. &/. 

mis, nt. & f. 



tu, nt. &/. 

tus, m. &/. 


el ) 




su, w. & /. 

sus, m. &/. 


usted ) 


your, its 


nuestro, m., nuestra, f. 

nuestros, w.,nuestras,y~. 



vuestro, m., vuestra, f. 

vuestros, w.,vuestras,/. 


ellos ) 



ellas >- 

su, m. & f. 

sus, m. & f. 

ustedes ) 



49. Use of the Possessive Adjectives. There is a 
possessive adjective to correspond to each personal pro- 
noun. The person and number of the possessor determine 
which possessive shall be used, and the possessive agrees 
with the noun modified (the thing possessed) in number 
and gender. Its position is before the noun modified. 

Tengo tu libra. I have your book. 

Hemos estudiado nuestra leccion. We have studied our les- 

Etlos y sus awiigos. They and their friends. 


a. If the possessive adjective modifies more than one noun, 
it is expressed before each noun modified. 

mi hermano y mi hermana, my brother and sister. 

50. The possessive adjective su. The possessive of 
the third person, su, sus, may mean "his," "her," its," 
"your," "their." It should be noted particularly that usted 
and ustedes, which take the verb in the third person, re- 
quire also the possessive of the third person. Sometimes, 
to avoid doubt as to the exact meaning of su, the following 
substitute possessive construction is used : 

his house 
her house 

[ their house 
{ your house 

=i su casa 

a. We also find the double possessive construction : 
de cl, su casa de ellos, su casa de usted, etc. 

51. Possessive Pronouns. 


el mio, la mia 
el tuyo la tuya 
el suyo, la suya 

el nuestro, la nuestra 

el vuestro, la vuestra 
el suyo, la suya 


los mios, las mias 
los tuyos, las tuyas 
los suyos, las suyas 
los nucstros, 

las nuestras 
los vuestros, 
las vuestras 
los suyos, las suyas 



his, hers, yours, its 


theirs, yours 

52. Use of the Possessive Pronouns. A possessive 
pronoun is used to take the place of a noun and a possessive 
adjective modifying it. There is a possessive pronoun to 
correspond to each possessive adjective. The possessive 
pronoun agrees in gender and number with the thing pos- 

Mi casa y la tuya, my house and yours. 

Yo tengo un libro y usted tiene dos libros. El mio es grande. 
t>ero los suyos son pequeiios. I have a book and you have two 
books. Mine is large, but yours are small. 


53. The Possessive Pronoun el suyo. In the third 
person singular and plural of the possessive pronoun we 
find the same possibility of confusion as in the case of the 
third person of the possessive adjective. Possible ambi- 
guity is avoided by the use of the following constructions. 

el de el, la de el, los de ,. 
el, las de el 

el de ella, etc. -hers 

el de usted, etc. yours 

el de ellos, etc. . . 

el de ellas, etc. 

el de ustedes, etc. yours 

^ = el suyo, la suya, los 
suyos, las suyas 

a. When the possessive pronoun or its substitute is used in the 
predicate position, the article is omitted. 
El libra es mio. The book is mine. 
Los perros son de usted. The dogs are yours. 

54. Special Use of Noun and Pronoun. It is a pe- 
culiarity of Spanish that names of male beings, if used in 
the plural, may be understood to include the corresponding 
female being. This is also true of the plural personal pro- 

mis hermanos = mi hermano y mi hermana = my brother and 
sister (my brothers and sisters). 

tus fios = tu tio y tu tia = your uncle and aunt. 

sits hij os = su hi jo y su hi/a = his son and daughter. 

los esposos = el esposo y la esposa the husband and wife 

los maestros = el maestro y la maestro = the schoolmaster and 
his wife. 

ellos = cl y ella = they (he and she). 

nuestros padres = n-uestro padre y nuestra madre = our parents. 


dueno, master, owner. pluma, pen. 

Hduardo, Edward. por consiguiente, conj., conse- 

esposo, -a, husband, wife. quently. 

Manuela, Emma. primo, -a, cousin. 

mismo, -a, -os, -as, (adjective or sobrino, -a, nephew, niece. 

pronoun), same. tio, -a, uncle, aunt. 
pariente, -a, relative. 



(a). Mi padre y yo. Tu y tu hijo. El y su madre. Ella 
y su hermano. Usted y su tio. Nosotros y nuestros amigos. Vos- 
otros y vuestras tias. Ellos y sus libros. El libro y su dueno. 
Ellas y sus sombreros. Ustedes y sus maestros. 

(6). Ella y el y el amigo de ella. Usted y el y el maestro de el. 
Ellos y ellas y los tios de ellos. Ustedes y ellos y los padres de 
ustedes (or sus padres de ustedes). 

(c). Mi madre y tu madre. La mia y la tuya. Mi padre y 
el tuyo. Tu hijo y el mio. Nuestro padre y el de ella. El amigo 
de ella y el de el. Nuestro libro y el de usted. Nuestros hijos y 
los de ustedes. Los maestros de usted y los nuestros. Las tias de 
ella y las vuestras. Tus primos y mis primos. Los tuyos y lo; 

(rf). Mi madre es la esposa de mi padre y mi padre es el 
esposo de mi madre. Tu tio es el hermano de tu padre 6 de tu 
madre. El esposo de tu tia es tambien tu tio. Luisa tiene un 
primo. Su primo es el hijo de sus tios (j. e., de los tios de ella). 
El primo de Luisa tiene un tio. Su tio es el padre de Luisa. El 
libro tiene dos duefios. Sus duenos son Luisa y su hermana. Usted 
tiene tres tias : la hermana de su padre, la hermana de su madre, 
y la esposa de su tio de usted. Nuestras primas son las hermanas 
de nuestros primos y las hijas de nuestros tios. Vuestro hermano 
es el hijo de vuestro padre. Luis es el primo de Maria y Maria y 
Eduardo son hermanos. El primo de ella es tambien el primo de 
el. Usted es su hermano de ellos : por consiguiente su primo de 
ellos es tambien su primo de usted. Los hijos y las hijas de nues- 
tros tios son nuestros primos. Mis padres son mi padre y mi 
madre. Mis hermanos son mis hermanos y mis hermanas 6 mi 
hermano y mi hermana. Usted y Luisa son primos porque el padre 
de ella y el padre de usted son hermanos. Ustedes y las hermanas de 
Luis estudian la misma leccion porque tienen el mismo maestro. 
Su maestro de ustedes y el maestro de ellos son el mismo. 

(e). iQuien es mi padre? 

iQuien es la madre de Eduardo? 
iQuienes son nuestros padres? 
iCuantos primos tenemos? 
iQuien es la tia de Manuela? 


iQuienes son vuestros sobrinos? 

iDe quien es el libro que tengo? 

<;De quienes son los libros que ustedes tienen? 

iDe quien es el libro que Maria tiene? 

iEs mio 6 tuyo el libro que esta en la mesa? 

iHa hallado usted mi pluma 6 la suya? 

iEs el sombrero de ella 6 de Maria? 



ADJECTIVES (a) descriptive (i) number (34) 

(2) gender (35) 

(3) agreement (33) 

(4) position (36) 

(5) used substantively (37) 

(b) numeral, cardinal, i-io (39) 

(c) possessive, (48, 49, 50) 
NOUNS special use of masculine plural (54) 
PRONOUNS possessive, (51, 52, 53) 
VERBS (a) regular (i) present participle (45) 

(2) past participle (42) 

(3) perfect indicative (44) 
(b) irregular U) ser (38) 

(2) estar (46) 

compared with ser (47) 

(3) haber (43) 
MISCELLANEOUS word order (41) 

idiomatic, age, (40) 


Remark. The "intimate" pronouns of the second person and 
their corresponding possessives are not to be used in this lesson. 

Turn into Spanish. I. A good girl studies hard (i. e., a great 
deal) because she wishes to learn. 2. A bad boy does not review 
his lessons. 3. Many lazy children have to learn rules. 4. The 
kitchen is a small room, but the library is large. 5. The teacher 
is very pretty and her cousin is handsome. 6. How many French 
girls are there in his class? 7. Spanish is quite easy, but the les- 
sons of your grammar are too long. 8. Is the grammar John's? 
Whose is it? 9. Louis and Emma are my brother and sister. 
10. Louise is ten years old and Edward is eight, n. My nephews 
and nieces are my brothers' sons and daughters. 12. We are not 


at all well. We are very sick. 13. My uncle and aunt are in 
Paris but they have relatives in the city of Madrid. 14. Have 
you not eaten yet? We are already eating. 15. The water is 
cold and the chocolate is hot. 16. I am preparing the break- 
fast for my mother. 17. Being industrious, my cousin is prepar- 
ing the lesson for day after to-morrow. 18. Being sick, she does 
not wish to eat. 19. They have had to go up. They are upstairs 
now. 20. I am the teacher and you are the pupil. 21. You and 
I are American. 22. Did you buy the hat to-day? 23. Having 
no money, they are sad. 24. Have you not been in Paris? 25. You 
are my sister, consequently my mother and your mother are the 
same. 26. Your (/>/.) toast is on the table. Ours is in the kitchen. 
27. Her friend is in the library. 28. Who are your nephews? 
29. The house is mine, ours, yours, his. 30. Whose is the pen 
which I have? 31. We have learned a lesson of four pages. How 
many are there in yours? 32. How are you (/>/.) ? 


55. Noun of Material, etc. Material is expressed in 
Spanish by the preposition de followed by a noun of mater- 
ial, instead of by a noun used as an adjective of material, 
as in English. 

un sombrero de encaje, a lace hat. 
un traje de seda, a silk dress. 

a. In general, Spanish is opposed to the use of a noun to mod- 
ify another noun directly, like an adjective. The nouns are pre- 
ferably joined by a preposition. 

una tienda de zapatos, a shoe-store. 

un traje de verano, a summer dress. 

la mesa del despacho, the sitting-room table. 

la calle de Sevilla, Seville street. 

56. Noun as "Personal" Object. When a noun used 
as direct object of a verb denotes a person, a living higher 
animal, or a personification, the preposition a is used before 
it. This construction, which may be called the personal ob- 



j active or personal accusative, is not easy to remember, 
since we naturally associate a with the indirect object only.* 

El padre llama a su hijo. The father calls his son. 

He comprado al perro. I have bought the dog. 

iBusca usted a Maria? Are you looking for Mary? 

a. The a is omitted when the object is not a definite, determi- 
nate person or animal. 

He comprado un perro. I have bought a dog. 

b. For the sake of clearness, the a is generally omitted before 
the personal objective when there is also an indirect object. 

El nino lleva su hermano a la escuela. The boy takes his 
brother to school. 

57. A Possessive Construction. It is current in Eng- 
lish to say, "at Wanamaker's," etc. In Spanish the noun 
omitted in English must be supplied. 

en la tienda de Wanamaker, at Wanamaker's. 
a casa de Eduardo, to Edward's. 

58. Agreement of Adjectives, a. An adjective that 
modifies two or more nouns of the same gender is put in 
the plural, and takes the gender of the nouns modified. 

un traje y un sombrero hermosos, a handsome suit and hat. 
Maria y Luisa son bonitas, Mary and Louise are pretty. 

b. An adjective that modifies two or more nouns of different 
genders is usually put in the masculine plural. 

mi padre y mi madre son buenos, my father and my mother 
are good. 

59. Demonstrative Adjectives. 











this, these 





that, those 





that yonder, those yonder 

*The use of the personal accusative is extended to nouns in the plural, 
but not to nouns preceded by a numeral. 

Busco a mis amigos. 
He comprado dos perros. 


a. A demonstrative adjective stands before the noun it modi- 
fies and agrees with it in number and gender. 

este libra, aquellos niiios, esa muchacha. 

b. These demonstratives correspond in use to the English de- 
monstrative adjectives, except that a sharp distinction is drawn 
between ese and aquel. Ese is used only to point out what is near 
to, or what has some relation to the person addressed. Aquel is 
used only to point out what is remote from both speaker and the 
person addressed. 

60. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

a. In form, the demonstrative pronouns are distinguished from 
the demonstrative adjectives only in that they bear the written ac- 
cent on the stressed syllable. 

este, estas, aquel, aquella, etc. 

b. The demonstrative pronouns correspond in meaning to the 
demonstrative adjectives, but they are used to take the place of 
a noun, with which they agree in number and gender. 

Yo tengo este libra y tu tienes ese. 
Ese libra es pequeno, aquel es grande. 

61. Prepositional Forms of the Personal Pronouns. 
The forms of the personal pronouns used as object of a 
preposition are the same as the subject forms (see 26), 
with the exception of the first and second persons singular, 
which have the special forms mi and ti, respectively. 

a mi, to me. 

de ti, from you. 

con el, con ella, with him, with her. 

a nosotros, to. us. 

de usted, de ustedes, from you. 

de vosotros, from you. 

para ellos, para ellas, for them 

a. "With me" and "with you" (intimate) are expressed by 
the special forms conmigo and contigo. 

62. The Irregular Verb, ir, "to go." Infinitive ir, 
Present Part., yendo, Past Part., ido. 



1. voy, I go, etc. i. vamos, we go, etc. 

2. vas 2. vais 

3. va 3. van 

REMARK. Note that in this tense the stem is v-. 

a. Ir followed by a with an infinitive means "to be about to," 
"to be going to." This construction also expresses purpose. 

Voy a comprar un sombrero. I am going to buy a hat. 

Deseo ir a comprar un sombrero. I want to go and (to) buy 
a hat. 

63. Spanish use of names of places after a and en does 
not always correspond to the English idiom. Note the fol- 

al despacho, to the office (like English idiom). 

a la escuela, to school. 

en la escuela, at school, in school. 

en casa, at home, home (place). 

a casa, home (direction). 

a casa de Juan, to John's. 


alia, adv., there (direction). noche, i., night, evening. 

barato, cheap. par, m., pair. 

buscar, to look for. pasar, to pass, spend. 

calle, i., street. quedar, to remain, stay. 

Carmen, Carmen. rato, time (short period of), 

casa, house, home. spell, while. 

cerca, adv., near by. responder, to answer. 

cosa, thing. Rico, a family name. 

dejar, to leave. seda, silk. 

en, at (=in). Sevilla, Seville. 

encaje, m., lace. si, conj., if. 

escuela, school. simpdtico, likeable, "nice" (used 

esta noche, adv., to-night. of persons). 

guante, m., glove. sin, prep., without. 

juntos, -as, together. solo, adj., alone. 

lectura, reading. tarde, i., afternoon. 

lejos, adv., far, a long way off. traje, m., suit, dress. 

Ldpes, a family name. unos, -as, some, certain. 

tnanana, morning. verano, summer. 

mejor, adj., best (precedes noun). zapato, shoe. 

necesitar, to need. 



(a). iDe quien es esta pluma? Esa pluma es mia. ,;De quien 
es ese libro de lectura? Este libro de lectura es de usted. ,jDe 
quienes son aquellos sombreros? Aquellos sombreros son de Juan 
y Luis. ,;Es esta su pluma (la pluma de usted)? Esa no es mia. 
He dejado la mia en casa. iSon estos mis libros? Esos no son 
suyos (de usted). Aquellos son de usted (suyos). 

(&). La escuela de Luisa no esta cerca. Esta lejos. Esta 
maiiana Luisa no va a quedar en casa. Va a la escuela. Su hermano 
Juan va con ella. Van juntos. Ahora Juan no esta aqui. No 
esta listo todavia. Luisa llama a Juan. Juan no responde a 
su hermana. Luisa busca a su hermano. Busca tambien sus 
libros. Si Juan no esta listo, Luisa tiene que ir sin el. Tiene que 
ir sola. 

(c). iEsta lejos la escuela de Luisa? 

iDonde va ella esta mafiana? 

i Por que no va a casa de su amiga ? 

i Quien va con ella a la escuela? 

<;A quien llama Luisa? 

iPor que no responde el? 

iDonde busca Luisa a su hermano? 

iA quien halla ella? 

iDonde ha dejado sus libros? 

i Tiene ella que ir sin su hermano? 

(d). Esta tarde voy a la ciudad a comprar unas cosas que 
necesito mucho. Necesito un sombrero de encaje, y un par de guantes 
de seda. Tambien necesito un traje de verano. En la tienda de 
Rico hay sedas y encajes hermosos y muy baratos. Mi amiga Car- 
men Lopez va conmigo. Ella es mi mejor amiga. Es una mu- 
chacha muy simpatica.' Su- padre y su madre son tambien muy sim- 
paticos. Mis padres y yo vamos muchas noches a pasar un rato 
con ellos. Esta noche vamos alia. 

(e). iDonde ha comprado usted estos guantes? 

iQue necesita usted comprar ahora? 

i Quien va con usted a la tienda? 

i Quien es Carmen Lopez? 

^ En que calle vive Carmen? 

iSon simpaticos sus padres? 

iPasa usted las noches en casa? 

^Va usted a casa ahora? 




64. Object forms of the Personal Pronouns. The 

following scheme gives the object pronouns in such a way 
as to show their relation to the subject and prepositional 

i . yo 

de mi 

me, me, to me, for me 


2. tU 

de ti 

te, you, to you, for you 



le, lo, him, it 

le, to him, to it, etc. 


de ella ' la, her it 

le (la), to her, etc. 

3 1 

de usted 


le, m. andy., to you, etc. 

i . nosotros 

de nosotros 

nos, us, to us, etc. 

2 . vosotros 

de vosotros 

os, you, to you, etc. 

f ellos 

de ellos los, them 

les, to them, etc. 

J ellas 

O 1 

de ellas 

las, them 

les (las), to them, etc. 

1 ustedes 

de ustedes 

iS/:;l you 

les, m. and f. , to you, etc. 

Note. (i). In the first person, and in the second person inti- 
mate, the direct and indirect object forms are the same. (2) In 
the third person singular masculine, we have the choice of two 
forms for direct object (le, lo). Either may be used to refer to 
persons, but le is not correctly used to refer to things. (3) Usted 
requires the object pronouns of the third person, just as it requires 
a verb in the third person (see 276), and a possessive of the third 
person (see 50). (4) In the third person feminine, the indirect 
object forms in parentheses (la, las) are rare, being used only to 
avoid ambiguity. 

65. Position of the Pronoun Object. The pronoun 
used as object precedes the verb of which it is the object, 
unless the verb be a present participle or an infinitive. 

Me llama. He calls me. 

Nos ha hablado. He has spoken to us. 

a. When the pronoun is the object of a present participle or 
an infinitive, it is attached to the verb-form as a suffix.* Since the 

* Positive imperatives also take the pronoun object as a suffix. This point 
will be discussed later in its proper place. 


verb-form continues to have the stress on the original syllable, a 
written accent is now required on present participles. 

Deseo hablarte. I wish to speak to you. 

llamdndolas, calling them. 

b. In the case of an infinitive or a present participle depend- 
ing upon an auxiliary (desear, tener que, deber, estar, querer, ir d), 
the object pronoun may precede the auxiliary, or be attached to 
the infinitive. 

Le deseo hablar \ T . . 

Deseo hablarle f 1 wish to s P eak to him ' 

Le estoy hablando \ , , . 

E> t i i,i' j i c I am speaking to him. 

Estoy hablandole \ 

66. Double Pronoun Object Construction. It will 
be noted that there is a chance for confusion in the use of 
the object pronouns of the third person. Le hablo might 
mean "I speak to him," "to her," or "to you," according 
to the context. For clearness it is customary to add, after 
the verb, the corresponding prepositional form of the pro- 
noun, depending upon the preposition a. 

Le hablo d usted. T speak to you. 
Les hablo d ellas. I speak to them. 
La busco d ella. I am looking for her. 

a. A similar construction is employed in any person, where 
emphasis or contrast is desired. The object pronouns are unable, 
of themselves, to express emphasis. 

Me habla d mi, pero no le habla d usted. He speaks to me, but 
he does not speak to you. 

Nos bitscan d nosotros, pero no les buscan d ustcdes. They are 
looking for us, but they are not looking for you. 

b. The prepositional form of the pronoun may be placed, for 
greater emphasis, before the regular object form. 

A ti te digo. I tell you. 

c. The double construction le . . . d usted, is considered more 
polite than le alone. It is constantly used when not needed for 
clearness or emphasis. 

Note. The use of d in these constructions with direct object, 
is parallel to the use of d with the personal object. (See 56.) 

67. Some Irregular Verbs. Note that many of the 
forms of these irregular verbs are regular, and that nearly 
all of the endings are so. 


a. poder, "to be able," "can," "may." Pres. Part., 
pudiendo, Past Part., podido. 


puedo, I can, etc. podemos, we can, etc. 

puedes podeis 

t>uede pueden 

b. querer, "to wish," "be willing," "want," "love." 
Pres. Part., queriendo. Past Part., querido. 


quiero, I want, etc. queremos, we want, etc. 

quieres quereis 

quiere quieren 

Note i. Querer expresses the English "will" in the sense of 
willingness, but not in the sense of futurity. 

j Quiere usted ir conmigo? Will you go with me? 

Note 2. Querer used with the personal objective or with a di- 
rect pronoun object representing a person, may mean "to love." 

Yo quiero a la nina. I love the girl. 

La quiero. I love her. 

c. decir, "to tell," "to say." Pres. Part., diciendo. 
Past Part., dicho. 


digo, I say, etc. decimos, we say, etc. 

dices decis 

dice dicen 

d. hacer, "to do," "make." Pres. Part., haciendo. 
Past Part., hecho. 


hago, I do, etc. haccmos, we do, etc. 

haces haceis 

hace hacen 

68. Idiomatic. English "to like." To express the 
English "like," used with an object, we must use the Span- 
ish regular verb gustar, "to please," with the indirect ob- 
ject pronoun. The object of the English verb becomes the 
subject of the Spanish sentence. 

Este libro me gusta. I like this book. (This book pleases me.) 


No me gustan aquellos sombreros. I don't like those hats 
(Those hats don't please me.) 

jLc gusta a Vd. Maria? Do you like Mary? 


algunos, -as, some, a few (adj. habilidad, f., ability, skill, 

or pron.). magnifico, splendid, "fine." 

amable, kind, agreeable. mas, adv., more, most. 

Barcelona, Barcelona. modelo, pattern, design, style. 

castigar, to punish. pan, m., bread. 

color, m., color. Pedro, Peter. 

complete, -a, complete. pluma, feather. 

compra, purchase. primero, adv., first. 

cortesmente, politely. que, that, than. 

cuando, when. que, who (relative). 

dependiente, clerk, employee. que! what! how! (excl.) 

donde, where (relative). recomendar, to recommend. 

ensenar, to show. S&nches, a family name. 

esperar, to expect, wait for. saludar, to greet. 

favor, m., favor. surtido, stock, assortment. 

gusto, pleasure. visitor, to visit. 

iMe hace usted el favor de . . .? Will you please . . . ? 
Es favor que usted me hace. You are very kind to say so. 


(a). Mi madre me llama. Me ha comprado un sombrero. 
Tu padre te busca. Te habla. Nuestra amiga nos visita. Nos 
escribe una carta. Vuestro maestro os ensena. Os ensena un libro 
La madre de Luis le (lo) quiere mucho. Le ha hecho un traje. 
El padre de Luisa le dice que la quiere. Maria va a aprender la 
leccion. Ha quedado en casa para aprenderla. Ahora la esta es- 
tudiando (esta estudiandola). El pan es bueno. Juan desea 
(quiere) comerlo. Lo come. Nifios, su madre (de ustedes) les 
quiere. Les ha comprado muchas cosas. Las ha comprado para 
ustedes. El padre dice a las ninas que las quiere mucho. Ninas, 
el maestro dice que las va a castigar (a ustedes). La madre de 
los ninos los ha dejado en casa del maestro. El padre busca a sus 
hijos, pero no puede hallarlos. 

(b). iHa llamado usted a Juan? 

Le he llamado, pero dice que no puede ir con nosotras. Espera a 
Pedro Sanchez que va a visitarle. Pedro es su mejor amigo, y 
Juan le quiere mucho. Tambien Pedro le quiere mu^ho a el. 

i Donde vamos primero esta tarde? 


Quiero hacer algunas compras. iQue tienda me puede usted 
recomendar (puede usted recomendarme) ? 

iQue clase de compras quiere usted hacer? 

Quiero comprar un sombrero. 

A mi me gusta mucho la tienda de Rico. Los dependientes 
son muy amables, y la casa tiene un surtido muy complete. 

(c). Cuando una senora entra en una tienda, el dependiente 
la saluda cortesmente, y le dice: Senora, ique desea usted? La 
senora le responde : <;Me hace usted el favor de ensenarme algunos 

Con mucbo gusto. iNo le gusta a usted este? 

Me gusta mas que aquel. Aquella pluma es demasiado grande. 

(<f). iQue hace usted, Maria? 

Estoy haciendo un traje de verano. 

j Que bonito es ! Y \ que habilidad tiene usted para estas cosas ! 

Es favor que usted me hace. (Es usted muy amable.) 

Esta seda es magnifica. iDonde la ha comprado usted? 

La he comprado en Barcelona. 

El modelo me gusta mucho, tambien el color. 

(e). iQue quiere Juan? 

i Quien quiere a Juan? 

iA quien quiere Juan? 

iA quien llama la senora? 

iQue le dice Juan? 

iPor que no puede ir? 

iA quien espera? 

iQue tienda le gusta mas a usted? 

iQue clase de dependientes tiene esta tienda? 

i Quiere usted hacerme un favor? 

i Quiere usted decirme donde ha comprado esa seda? 

iQue ensefia el dependiente a la senora? 

iQue le dice ella? 

iNo puede usted 6 no quiere usted hacer mi traje? 

iComo decimos en espanol, "you are very kind"? 

iComo decimos en espanol, "will you please show me that book"? 



69. Indicative Imperfect and Past Definite. There 
are two simple tenses of the indicative that express action 
in past time. These are called the Imperfect and the Past 
Definite (Preterite). Each of these tenses has two sets of 
endings: one for verbs of the first conjugation (-ar verbs), 
and one for verbs of the second and third conjugations 
(-er and -ir verbs). These endings are, in regular verbs, 
added to the stem of the infinitive (19). 





1. -aba -ia -6 -I 

2. -abas -ias -aste -iste 

3. -aba -fa -6 -io 


1. -abamos -iamos -amos -imos 

2. -abais -iais -asteis -isteis 

3. -aban -fan -aron -leron 

Applying these endings to the typical regular verbs we get: 


hallaba vivia ensene respondi 

hallabas vivias ensefiaste rcspondiste 

hallaba vivia enseno respondio 

hallabamos viviamos ensenamos respondimos 

hallabais viviais ensenasteis respondisteis 

hallaban vivia ft ensenaron rcspondieron 

Note a. In the present tense it was found that the stress falls on 
the stem of the verb in four forms only (sing., i, 2, 3, and plu. 3.). 
In the imperfect and past definite the stress falls in all forms on 
the first syllable of the ending. 

b. Notice that the imperfect ist and 3d sing, are alike, and 
that in the first and third conjugations the past def. first person 
plu. is like the present indie., first person plu. 


70. Use of Imperfect and Past Definite. 

a. The past definite expresses a definite act occurring and 
completed at some point of past time; an act in past time not con- 
tinuous. It expresses what "took place" at some particular past 

Juan me hablo ayer. John spoke to me yesterday. 
No cantaron. They did not sing. 

b. The imperfect commonly represents an act as continuing in 
past time, or as habitual in the past. It must sometimes be trans- 
lated by "was" ("were") with the present participle, or by "used to.'' 

Escribia una carta. I was writing a letter. 
En Madrid estudidbamos mucho. In Madrid we used to study 

c. When two actions occur simultaneously, one interrupting 
the other, the interrupted act is expressed by the imperfect, and 
the interrupting act by the past definite. 

Comia cuando mi padre me llamd. I was eating when my 
father called me. 

d. In descriptive narrative the imperfect is used to describe 
the scenic b7ckground and the qualities and conditions of persons 
and things. The past definite tells what occurred. 

Cuando los dos mozos llega- When the two young fellows 

ron, encontraron d Rita y Elvira arrived, they found Rita and El- 

en la puerta. Sus mantillas les vira in the doorway. Their 

cubrian la parte baja de la cara, mantillas covered the lower part 

de manera que no dejaban fuera of their faces so completely that 

mas que la frente y los ojos. their eyes and foreheads alone 

were visible. 

71. Irregular Imperfects. Only three Spanish verbs, 
ser, ir and ver, "to see," are irregular in the imperfect in- 
dicative. All other imperfects are formed regularly by add- 
ing endings to the stem of the infinitive. The Imperfects 
of ser and ir are given below. 


era, I was, etc. eramos, we were, etc. 

eras era is 

era eran 


iba, I was going, etc. ibamos, we were going, etc. 

ibas ibais 

iba than 


72. Past Progressive Conjugation with estar. Pro- 
gressive action in past time may be expressed not only by 
the simple imperfect (see 7O&), but also by the imperfect 
of estar used with the present participle. (Compare 4*? 
A, c.} 

Estaba trabajando. I was working. 

Estabamos comiendo. We were eating. 

a. Past customary or habitual action may be expressed by the 
imperfect of the verb acosfumbrar &, "to be used," with an infin- 

Acostumbrabamos & trabajar mucho. We used to work hard. 

73. Orthographically Irregular Verbs. Many Span- 
ish verbs which are conjugated regularly undergo certain 
changes of spelling in order to preserve throughout the con- 
jugation the sound which the final consonant of the stem 
has in the infinitive. Verbs whose infinitive ends in -car 
or -gar, change c and g of the stem to qu and gu respec- 
tively when the ending begins with e. Of the forms already 
learned, only the Past Definite, ist person sing., is affected 
by this rule. 

(buscar} busque, I sought; (castigar) castigue, I punished. 

74. The Pluperfect Indicative. This compound tense 
Is formed by the imperfect of haber, and the past participle 
of the verb to be conjugated. Its use is similar to that of 
the English pluperfect. 

Habia comido. I had eaten. 

Habiamos estudiado la leccion. We had studied the lesson. 


acompanar, to be with, accom- citando, conj., when. 

pany. de, prep., about (with hablar, 

agradable, agreeable. etc.) 

algo, pron., something. dclante de, prep., in front of, 

asiento, seat. before. 

ayef, yesterday. encontrar, to meet, come upon. 

cafe, in., coffee, cafe. entonces, adv., then. 

cerca de, prep., near. helado, ice, ice-cream. 

cudndof when? invierno, winter. 


ir a poseo, to go to walk. Puerto del Sol, a Square in Ma- 

mientras que, conj., while. drid. 

mirar, to look, look at. scntado, seated. 

mozo, waiter. siempre, adv., always. 

no, nada, not anything. Snares, a family name. 

ocurrir, to occur, happen. todas las noches, every night, 
para que? why? (for what pur- every evening. 

pose?) todas las tardes, adv., everv af- 
persona, person, (plu.) people. ternoon. 

por, prep., through. varios, -as, various. 

presentar, to introduce. vcntana, window. 

Give reason for each imperfect and past definite in a and c. 

(a). Cuando (yo) vivia en Madrid, mi amigo Pedro Suarez 
y yo ibamos (acostumbrabamos a ir) todas las tardes a paseo. Des- 
pues entrabamos en uno de los cafes de la Puerta del Sol, donde 
tomabamos algo. En el invierno tomabamos cafe y en el verano 
un helado. Siempre encontrabamos en el cafe a varies amigos, 
sentados a una mesa cerca de una ventana. Bebiamos y hablabamos 
de las cosas que nos habian ocurrido. Alii pasabamos muchos ratos 

(6). Cuando usted vivia en Espana, ique acostumbraba usted 
a hacer todas las tardes? 

iCon quien iba usted a paseo? 

i Donde entraban ustedes despues? 

i Donde tomaban ustedes asientos? 

i Que hacian ustedes en el cafe ? 

iQue bebian ustedes en el -verano? <;en el invierno? 

iDe que hablaban ustedes? 

i Donde va V. todas las noches? 

(c). Esta manana pasaba por la Calle de Sevilla cuando en- 
contre a mi amigo Pedro Suarez. Su hijo Luis le acompaiiaba. 
Pedro me saludo y me presento a su hijo. Estabamos cerca del 
Cafe Ingles y entramos juntos. Tomamos asientos cerca de la 
ventana y Suarez llamo un mozo. Yo tome un helado, Suarez tomo 
cafe, y su hijo no deseo tomar nada. Mientras que comiamcs y 
bebiamos (estabamos comiendo y bebiendo), hablamos de muchas 
cosas. Miramos por las ventanas a las personas que pasaban de- 
lante del cafe. Saludamos a varios amigos y uno de ellos hablo 
un rato con nosotros. 


(d). iCuando paso usted por la Calle de Sevilla? 
^A quien encontro usted cerca del Cafe Ingles? 
iDonde le encontro usted? 
,; Quien le acompanaba? 
iCuando les encontro usted? 
,jLe presento Pedro a su hijo? 
iDonde entraron ustedes entonces? 
iPara que entraron ustedes en el cafe? 
,iD6nde tomaron ustedes asientos? 
iA quien llamo Suarez? 
iTomo usted algo? 
iNo tomo nada el hijo de Suarez? 
i Quien entro mientras que ustedes hablaban? 
Cuando le encontre a usted esta manana iiba usted a paseo, 
6 iba usted a la escuela? 

i Quien era el hombre con quien usted entro en el cafe? 
iA quien busco usted alii? 



ADJECTIVES (a) descriptive, agreement (58) 

(b) demonstrative (59) 
NOUN (a) of material (55) 

(b) as personal object (56) 

(c) possessive construction (57) 
PRONOUN (a) personal (i) prepositional forms (61) 

(2) object forms (64) 

position (65) 
double construction (66) 
(b) demonstrative (60) 

VERB (a) regular (i) indicative, imperfect and past definite, forms (69) 

use (70) 

(2) past progressive construction (72) 

(3) indicative pluperfect (74) 
(b) irregular (i) orthographical changes (73) 

(2) irregular imperfects (71) 

(3) ir, piesent indicative, etc. (62) 

(4) poder, querer, decir, haccr, pres. indicative, etc. (67) 
MISCELLANEOUS idiomatic, "to like" (68) 


Turn into Spanish. I. I punished my son this afternoon be- 
cause he was bad. 2. She is tired every evening. 3. Carmen's 
husband and father were with her. 4. We stayed in Wanamaker's, 
where we bought two pairs of silk gloves and a lace dress. 5. While 


we were waiting for our friends, we looked out of the window at 
the people who were passing in front of the cafe. 6. He greeted 
me politely. 7. I was going through Seville St. when I met her. 
8. I am going to tell you (intimate sing.) something. 9. He 
says that he is going to visit you (intimate plu.) to-morrow. 10. It 
is my mother's voice. She is calling me. n. I can recommend 
you (ordinary sing.) a store where they have very kind clerks and 
a very complete stock. 12. Did they treat you (ordinary plu. fern.) 
well? 13. Why do you go there first? May we not go together 
afterwards? 14. She always wants to talk about the things that 
have happened to her. 15. The girls say that they wish to go to- 
night and that Peter may go with them. 16. These shoes are 
very cheap, and I like them better than those yonder. 17. Do 
you not wish to make a few purchases? 18. Whom did your uncle 
meet this morning near the Cafe Ingles? 19. Why did you not 
take anything? 20. Did they spend a pleasant evening at Louisa's? 
21. What were they doing at school this morning when the teacher 
came in? 22. When will you go to walk with me? 23. Can you 
not answer him in Spanish? 24. I do not need my reading book; 
consequently I am going to leave it at home. 25. She is a very 
nice girl and ought not to go alone. 26. Will you please show 
me another pattern and another color? 27. What were you saying? 
28. Are you buying them for him or for her? 29. I was looking 
for you (ordinary) and not for him. 30. Had he introduced his 
sister to the president? 31. I love him and he loves me. I love 
you (ordinary fern.). I love you (ordinary fern.). He loves the 


75. Reflexive Verbs. A reflexive verb is one whose 
action is directed back upon the subject of the verb. Any 
transitive verb whose meaning will permit, may be used in 
this way. The object of a reflexive verb may be direct or 
indirect, according to the nature of the verb. This object 
is expressed by a reflexive pronoun of the same number 
and person as the subject. 

I strike myself. 

The boy sees himself in the glass. 

We buy ourselves hats. 


76. Reflexive Pronouns. In English we have a re- 
flexive pronoun for each person and number (myself, your- 
self, etc.). In Spanish there is but one reflexive, se, which 
serves for third person singular and plural, masculine and 
feminine, direct or indirect object. For the other persons, 
the regular personal object pronouns are used. 

1. me, myself, to myself i. nos, ourselves, to ourselves 

2. te, yourself, to yourself (int.) 2. os, yourselves, to yourselves, 


3. se, himself, herself, itself, 3. se, themselves, yourselves, 

yourself, to yourself, etc. to themselves, to yourselves 

a. When the reflexive pronoun is used as object of a prepo- 
sition, the prepositional form si is used for the third person (sing. 
or plu., m. or f.), excepting after the preposition con, when the 
form consigo is used (parallel to conmigo, contigo). In the first 
and second persons, the regular prepositional forms of the personal 
pronouns are used. (See 61.) 

Compro el sombrero para mi. I buy the hat for myself. 

77. Position of Reflexive Pronoun Object. The po- 
sition of a reflexive pronoun is before or after the verb in 
accordance with the rule stated for object pronouns in 65. 

El muchacho se ensetia. The boy teaches himself. 

Me he comprado un sombrero. I have bought myself a hat. 

Hacerse tin trafe. To make oneself a dress. 

Tratdndose bien. Treating himself well. 

78. Kinds of Reflexive Verbs. A reflexive verb may 

a. A simple transitive verb used reflexively without change of 
meaning. Such are the examples given above in 77. 

b. A transitive or intransitive verb used reflexively with 
change of meaning. 

war char, to march ; marcharse, to go away. 

llamar, to call ; llamarse, to be called, be named. 

hollar, to find; hallarse, to find oneself, to happen to be, to be. 

c. Verbs intrinsically reflexive, i. e., always used reflexively. 
These are rare, and are generally not translated reflexively into 

atreverse, to dare; constiparse, to catch cold. 



Conjugate air ever se in the pres. indie., constiparse in the past 
definite, and hallarse in the imperfect indicative. 

79. Reflexives used with Impersonal or Passive 
Force. A very common Spanish construction is the use of 
se with the third person singular or plural of a verb, with 
impersonal force, or as a passive. 

a. Corresponding to the English impersonal verb, se is used 
with a verb in the third person singular. 

Se dice que Juan estd enfermo. They say that John, etc. 

No se bebe mucho en Espana. They don't drink much in Spain. 

b. Corresponding to the English passive, se is used with a verb 
which is singular or plural according to the number of the subject. 

Muchas lenguas se hablan en Europa. Many languages are 
spoken in Europe, 

El espanol se habla en Espana. Spanish is spoken in Spain. 

80. Interrogatives que and cual. Que, "what," is a 
sort of general utility interrogative. It is uninflected, and 
may be used as subject or as object, as adjective or pro- 
noun. (See sentences in past lessons.) , 

a. Cudl, plu. cuales, is generally used as a pronoun with the 
preposition de, to mean "which." It also expresses "which" or 
"what" before any form of the verb ser. 

iCual de estos hombres es sn amigo? Which of these men 
is his friend? 

jCual es la lengua de los Estados Unidos? What is the lan- 
guage of the United States? 

Exception. When a definition is asked for, "what" before ser is ex- 
pressed by que. 

iQue es gramatica? What is grammar? 

81. Impersonal Construction. The third person plu- 
ral of the verb is sometimes used impersonally, as in Eng- 

fEn Espaiia hablan espanol ? Do they speak Spanish in Spain? 

82. Definite -Article with Names of Countri<k. With 
names of countries the definite article may, or may not be 


used. Usage varies, but the article is generally omitted if 
the noun is governed by a preposition. 

Espana: la Espaiia America: la America 

Vivo en Espafia. He viajado par America. 

a. Some geographical names are always accompanied by the 
article, even when governed by a preposition^ Among these are : 
El Brasil, el Canada, los Estados Unidos. 

83. The Irregular Verb ver, "to see." Infinitive ver, 
Present Part., viendo, Past Part., visto. 


veo, I see, etc. vemos, we see, etc. 

ves veis 

ve ven 


veia, I saw, etc. veiamos, we saw, etc. 

veias vciais 

veia veian 

Note. On this imperfect see 71. The past definite is regular, 
built on the stem of the infinitive, v-. 

83 A. Superfluous Pronoun Object. An extension of 
the double pronoun object construction explained in 66 is 
the use of a superfluous pronoun object of the same num- 
ber and gender as an expressed noun object. This is com- 
monly used when a personal object stands first in a sen- 
tence or clause. 

A mi hermana la quiere todo el mundo. Everybody loves my 

No me gusta & mi, pero le gusta & mi padre. I don't like it, 
but my father does like it. 


alcgrarse, to be glad. causa, cause, reason. 

asi, adv., thus, so, in this way. y a causa de, prep., because of 

bastante, adv., quite, consider- colegio, school, college. 

ably. Chile, Chile. 

el Brasil, Brazil. comof what? 

el Canadof Canada. cudnto tiempof how long? 

capital, f., capital (city). Cuba, Cuba. 


los (las) dcmds, the rest, the patria, native land. 

others. perfectamente, adv., perfectly. 

los Estados Unidos, the United por supuesto. adv., of course. 

States. portugues, ^a, Portuguese. 

Euro pa, Europe. principal, adj., principal. 

llamarse, to be called, to be republica, republic. 

named. salud, L, health. 

marcharse, to go away. Santiago, Santiago. 

Mejico, Mexico. solamente, adv., only,, 

mes, m., month. Sud- America, South America. 

muchisimo, adv., very much. tiempo, time. 

mucho tiempOjadv.j a long time^ todo, -a, -os, -as, all, whole (adj 

long, and pron.) 

mundo, world % todo el mundo, the whole world 
Norte- America, North America. everybody^ 

pats, m., country. viajar^ to travel, 


(a). Se dice que usted ha viajado mucho, 

He viajado bastante. Por los principales paises de Europa y 
tambien en Sud-America. 

iCual de los paises que ha visto le gusta mas? 

Me gusta mas mi pais (mi patria). A todo el mundo le gusta 
mas su patria. Pero todos debemos viajar si podemos. Asi se 
aprende mucho, 

Por supuesto habla usted varias lenguas. 

Hablo bastante bien el ingles, el espanol y el f ranees. No se 
necesitan mas lenguas que estas tres para via jar por todo el mundo. 

iQue lenguas se hablan en Sud-America? 

En el habla portugues. En los demas paises de Sud- 
America hablan espanol. 

iSe ensena ingles en las escuelas de Sud- America 1 

En algunas (varias) ciudades hay colegios ingleses. 

iComo se llama la capital de la republica de Chile J 

La capital de Chile se llama* Santiago de Chile. Se llama asi 
porque hay otro Santiago en Espana y otro en Cuba. 

i Paso usted mucho tiempo ^n Santiago? 

Algunos tuesos solamente. Me march^ a causa de la mala 
salud de mi esposa. 

iEsta buena ahora la esposa de Vd.? 


Me alegro mucho. 


(fc). iComo se llama este sefior? 

I For cuales de los paises de Norte-America ha viajado? 

i Se dice que es^e scnor habla varias lenguas? 

i Cuales son las principales lenguas de Europa? 

i Que lenguas se nec,esitan para viajar en Sud-America? 

i Para que debemos todos viajar? 

iQue lenguas se hablan en Norte-America? 

iEn cual de los paises de Sud-America se habla portugues? 

jHay colegios ingleses en Sud-America? ien el Canada? 

iDonde se enseiia nuestra lengua? 

jCuanto tiempo paso usted en el Brasil? 

;Por que se marcho usted? 

iComo se llama la capital de nuestro pais? 

iComo se llama usted? 

iComo se halla su esposa? 


84. Irregular Past Definites. Learn the irregular 
past definites of haber, ser, estar, tener, poder, querer, 

decir, hacer, and ir. (See 531-535, 537, 539> 542, 543-)* 
The past definites of ser and ir are alike. The other past 
definites in this group have certain points in common, a. The 
stem of the past definite is in all cases distinct from that of the 
infinitive, b. The stress in the first and third persons singular, is on 
the stem instead of on the ending. 

85. Infinitives with a Preposition. The infinitive 
used after a preposition," may have in Spanish the force of 
the English present participle* 

dcspues de comer, after eating. 
sin estudiar, without studying. 
antes de levantarse* before getting up. 

rt. The infinitive after al, is translated by on with a present 

al verla/ton seeing her. 

"The student is reminded that the imperfects of these verbs, with the 
exception of ser and ir, are regular. (See 71.) 


b. Either of the above constructions may be followed by a 
subject, in which case they may be translated by a temporal clause. 
al levantarme yo, when I got up. 
despues de entrar Juan, after John came in. 


86. Idiomatic Use of tencr. In English, to express 

physical or mental condition, we use "to be" with an adjec- 
tive phrase. Condition is often expressed in Spanish by 
tener with a noun. 

Tengo su"iio. I am sleepy. (Literally, I have sleep.) 
T enemas' prisa. We are in a hurry. (Literally, We have haste.) 
El nino tiene hambre. The child is hungry. (Literally, The 
child has hunger.) 

Note. The adverb in the English "I am very sleepy" must be 
expressed in Spanish by an adjective. 

Tengo mucho sueno. (Literally, I have much sleep.) 

87. Cardinal Numerals 1 1 to 39. 

once II veinte y dos 22 

doce 12 veinte y ires 23 

trece 13 veinte y cuatro 24 

catorce .' 14 veinte y cinco 25 

quince 15 veinte y sets 26 

dies y seis 16 veinte y siete 27 

dies y siete 17 veinte y ocho 28 

dies y ocho 18 veinte y nueve 29 

dies y nueve 19 treinta 30 

veinte 20 treinta y uno 31 

veinte y uno 21 treinta y dos, etc 32 

a. The numerals from 16 to 19 are also written diecjseis, 
diccisiele, etc. Those from 21 to 29 are written veintiuno, etc 
Those from 30 to 39 are written treintaiuno, etc. 

88. Time of Day. 

jQue hora es? What time is it? 

iQue how , era? What time was it? 

jQ'iie hora tiene usted? What time have you? 

Es la una. Son las tres. It is one o'clock. It is three o'clock. 

Son las cuatro y media. It is half past four. 

Eran las cinco y cuarlo or un cuarto. It was quarter past five. 

Son las siete y veinte minutos. It is twenty minutes past seven. 

A las ocho menos diez. At ten minutes to eight. 


Las d\ez de la manana, de^ la no^lie. Ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing (A. M.), in the evening, at mght ^P. M.). 

Las cnatro de la tarde. Four o'clock in the afternoon. 

Note the use of the plural verb and article with all hours 
except the first, and use of feminine article to agree with hora 
omitted. Y expresses minutes after the hour and before the half, 
menos expresses minutes after the half and before the next hour. 
Minutos may be expressed or omitted. 

89. Use of Definite Article. In Spanish, the definite 
article is used instead of a possessive adjective before names 
of parts of the body or articles of clothing, provided its use 
leaves no doubt as to the possessor. 

El muchacho abrio los ojos. The boy opened his eyes. 


abrir, to open (see 549). lie gar, to arrive (see 73). 

a fuerza de, prep., by dint of, by. medio, -a, adj., half. 

antes de, prep., before. menos, adv., less. 

Carlos, Charles. minuto, minute. 

cerrado, -a, shut. ojo, eye. 

cuarto, (noun) quarter, preguntar, to ask (a question). 

desayunarse, to have breakfast,, prisa, haste. 

despues de, prep., after. puerta, door. 

hambre, f., hunger. reloj, m., wa.tch, clock (pro- 

hora, hour, time. nounced relo), 

irse, to go away, to go along. suefio, sleep. 

levantarse, to get up. universidad, f., university. 


a. Esta manana, al abrir los ojos, tenia mucho suefio todavia. 
Antes de levantarme mire mi reloj y vi que eran ya las ocho menos 
cuarto. Teniendo que estar en la universidad a las ocho, no tuve 
tiempo de desayunarme, y me fui sin comer. Al pasar dclante de! 
Cafe Ingles, tin amigo me llamo y me pregunto si no queria cntrar. 
Le dije (or respondi) que tenia mucha prisa y que no podia. A 
fuerza de correr llegue a la clase a las ocho y cinco y encontre la 
puerta cerrada. 

b. Read the above paragraph aloud, making the subject Carlos, 
and making such other changes as the laws of agreement require. 
Repeat in the same way, making nosotros the subject. 


c. iDonde estaba Carlos cuando abrio los ojos? 

iQue hora era cuando Carlos se levanto? 

iQue tomo antes de irse a la universidad? 

,; Que acostumbraba a tomar? 

Si tenia hambre, ipor que no tomo nada? 

iPor que no pudo desayunarse antes de irse? 

i Por que no quiso entrar en el cafe? 

iQue dijo Carlos al amigo que le habia llamado? 

Al llegar Carlos a la clase, ique hora era? 

iSe levanto usted tarde 6 temprano? 

iA que hora se levanto usted esta manana? 

iA que hora le llamo a usted su madre? 

iQue hora es? 


90. The Future and Conditional Indicative. Each 
of these tenses has but one set of endings to serve for the 
three conjugations. 


-6 -ia - 

-as -fas 

-a -ia 

-emos -iamos 

-6is -iais 

-an . -ian 

Note. The endings of the conditional of all conjugations are like the 
endings of the imperfect of the second and third conjugations. All futures 
and conditionals receive the stress oh the first (or only) syllable of the ending. 

The stem of the future and conditional, in regular verbs, 
is the whole infinitive : i. e., the stem of the infinitive to- 
gether with the infinitive ending. The future and condi- 
tional would be formed then as follows : 


estudlare, I shall study. escribiria, I should write. 

estudiaras, You will study, etc. escribirias, You would write, etc. 


Conjugate in the future and conditional any familiar regular 
verb, and also ir, ver, ser and estor, which are regular in these 


91. Use of Future and Conditional. The future tense 
is used in the main, as in English, to express simple futurity. 

Maiiana ire a Madrid^ To-morrow I shall go to Madrid. 
Los ninos'opt'enderdn la leccwn. The children will learn the 

a. The conditional commonly expresses action that is 
future in reference to some verb in past time. 

Le dije que iria a Madrid. I told him that I should go to Mad- 

Le pregunte si veria a mi hijo. I asked him if he would see 
my son. 

Note. For should meaning ought review 3ob. 

92. Irregular Futures and Conditionals. The end- 
ings of all verbs, even the most irregular, are regular in 
these tenses. Verbs having irregularities in the future and 
conditional have irregular stems. 

a. The vowel of the infinitive ending may be dropped, as in 
haber, poder, and querer, whose stems are habr-, podr-, and querr-. 

b. D may be substituted for the vowel of the infinitive end- 
ing, as in tener, whose stem is ten.dr-. 

c. The infinitive may be shortened by the loss of two letters, 
as in decir and hacer, whose stems are dir- and har-. 

Learn the irregular future and conditional of the verbs 
mentioned in this paragraph. (See 531, 533-534, 537-539- 

93. Future Perfect and Conditional Perfect. These 
compound tenses, formed respectively from the future and 
conditional of haber and a past participle, offer no especial 
difficulty. They are literal translations of the English. 

Habrdn ido ya. They will have gone already. 

No lo habrian visto. They would not have seen him* 

94. Comparison of Adjectives. 

a. Equality. Comparison of equal degree is expressed by 
tan, "as," before the adjective, and como, "as," after it. 

Juan es tan aplicado como yo John is as industrious as I. 


b. Inequality. Comparison of unequal degree^, is expressed by 
mas, "more," or menos, "less," before the adjective" and "que, "than," 
after it. 

Juan es mas aplicado que yo. John is more industrious than I. ^ 
Maria es mas bonita que Luisa. Mary is prettier than Louise. *r 
Esta lecdon es menos fdcil que la otra< This lesson is less easy 
than the other. 

c. Superlative. Superlative degree is expressed by el (la, los, 
las) mas, or el (la, los, las) menos before the adjective. 

el mas carlo, the shortest. 

la menos fdcil, the least easy. . 

Note i. If the adjective follows the noun, the article precedes it. 

el medico mas famoso, the most famous doctor. 
Note 2. "In" after a superlative is expressed by de. 

el medico mas famoso de la ciudad^ the most famous doctor in the city. 
Note 3. The possessive adjective may take the place of the article, 
mis discipulos mas aplicados, my most industrious pupils. 

95. Use of Definite Article. The definite article must 
accompany titles, except in direct address. 

el seiior Snares, Mr. Suarez. 

Senor Suarez, icomo estd listed? How are you, Mr. Suarez? 

EXCEPTION. Don and Dona are Spanish titles that have no 
English equivalent. They are used before the Christian name only, 
and are never accompanied by the article. Don Carlos, Dona Maria.* 

96. Omission of Indefinite Article. The indefinite 
article is not used with a predicate noun denoting class, 
profession, occupation, rank and nationality. 

Mi amigo es americano^ My friend is an American. 

Don Carlos es maestro. Charles is a teacher. 

jNo es usted medico? Are you not a doctor? 

o. If the predicate noun is limited by an adjective, the article 
must be used. 

El Sr Lopez es un medico muy famosot Mr. Lopez is a very 
famous doctor^ 

97. Present Participle Clauses. A clause introduced 
by a present participle may express a condition. 

Teniendo yo dinero, compraria una casa. If I had money, I 
should buy a house. 

Siendo medico, jtrabajaria usted dia y nochef If you were a 
doctor, would you work day and night^ 

*Senor, Senora, Don and Dona are abbreviated Sr., Sra., D., Da. 



Alfonso, Alphonso. inujer, woman, wife. 

besar, to kiss. ocupado, -a, busy. 

desde . . . liasta, from... to. oficina, office. 

Diego, James. pie, m., foot. 
criado, -a, servant. a pie, on foot. 

ejemplo, instance, example. periodico, newspaper. 

famoso, -a, famous. por, prep., for, in, during. 

Fernandez, a family name. tan, adv., as, so. 

leche, {., milk. tanto, adv., so much. 

medico, physician, taza, cup. 
mediodia, m., noon, 

todo el dia, toda la noche, toda la manana, all day, all night, 
all the morning. 

por la manana, in the morning, mornings. 

Por la tarde, in the afternoon, afternoons. 

por la noche, at night, in the evening, nights, evenings. 

Por el dia, during the day. 


a. El Sr. Fernandez se llama D. Diego,, Su esposa (mujer) 
se llama Da. Carmen. D. Diego es medico. Es un medico famoso. 
Su hermano D. Alfonso es tambien medico, pero no es tan famoso 
como D. Diego. El Sr. Fernandez es uno de los medicos mas 
famosos del pais. Es el mejor medico de la ciudad. Todo el dia 
D. Diego esta muy ocupado. Por ejemplo: Manana la criada le 
llamara a las siete menos cuarto. Tomara una taza de cafe con 
leche, y pan 6 tostadas, repasando (mirando) al mismo tiempo e) 
periodico de la manana y las cartas que hallara en la mesa del 
comedor. Entonces besara a sus hijos. y a su mujer, y se ira a pie 
a su oficina, donde le estaran esperando muchos enfermos. Alii 
estara desde las ocho hasta mediodia. Por la tarde tendra que 
visitar a los enfermos que no han podido ir a verle en la oficina. 

b. i Es maestro el Sr.. Fernandez ? 
iQue es el Sr. Fernandez? 

iComo se llama? 

iQue hace por la manana? 

iEs mas famoso que su hermano? 

iCual de los dos es el mas ocupado? 

iComo pasara D. Diego el dia manana? 

iQue hara mientras que esta comiendo? 

iQuien es el mejor medico de la ciudad? 

iComo ira a la oficina 

iLe veran sus hijos antes de irse el a la oficina? 


Para ir a la oficina, ipor que calle tendra que pasar? 

^Tendra que estar mucho tiempo alii? 

i Por que no van todos los enfermos a verle en la oficina? 

^Donde los visita el? 

Teniendo que trabajar tanto, idesearia usted ser medico? 

Estando enfermo, iQue haria Vd. ? 

i Se marcho su amigo de Vd. por la tarde? 

<;A que hora come Vd. por la manana? 



ARTICLE (a) definite, use (82, 89, 95) 
(b) indefinite, omission (96) 
ADJECTIVE (a) descriptive, comparison (94) 

(b) numeral, cardinal 11-39 (87) 

(c) interrogative pronoun-adjectives que and cual (80) 

PRONOUN Reflexive (a) forms (76) 

(b) position (77) 
VERB (a) Regular (i) future and conditional (90, 91) 

(2) future and conditional perfect (931 

(3) reflexive verbs (75, 78, 79) 

(4) impersonal construction (81) 

(5) infinitive after preposition (85) 

(6) present participle clauses (97) 
(b) Irregular (i) irregular past definite (84) 

(2) irregular futures and conditionals (02) 

(3) ver (83) 

(4) tenet, idiomatic use (86) 
MISCELLANEOUS Time of day (88) 


Turn into Spanish, i. Will you please tell me where there is 
a doctor's office? 2. The doctor will be in his office this afternoon, 
from three to quarter past five. 3. We have been traveling this 
summer with a Portuguese gentleman and his wife. 4. They said 
that they should arrive at nine twenty-eight. 5. By dint of work- 
ing hard (muclio), we shall speak German perfectly. 6. Brazil is 
as large as the United States, and larger than Canada. 7. Santiago 
is the largest city in the Republic of Chile. 8. James's college is 
very far away; consequently, in order to have breakfast before go- 
ing on foot to his class, he has to get up early, g. We wanted to 
go in, but could not. 10. How long were they in Mexico? They 
were not there long. n. They say that you do not like South 
America. 12. On the contrary, I like it very much. 13. What is 


this servant's name? His name is Alphonso. 14. At what time 
did they go away? 15. Mr. Suarez is a very famous man. He 
teaches in the University of Barcelona. 16. The best country in 
the world is my native land. 17. T'.ie children are in a hurry, but 
they have time to kiss their mother. 18. They asked us what 
time it was. 19. Shall we take seats near the door? 20. When 
I saw Charles in his office, he was very busy, so I went away after 
talking a few minutes with him. 21. What shall we be able to 
do then? 22. What kind of man is the President of Cuba? 23. If 
you were sick, what should you do? 24. How long shall we have 
to wait in order to see them? 25. Who made you that suit? 
26. What will mother say? 27. If you were very hungry should 
you take ice-cream ? 28. My wife, because of her poor health, 
eats very little in the morning. 29. She takes only a cup of coffee 
with milk. 30. Did you buy the watch for yourself? 31. Are 
you sleepy? Then why have you your eyes shut? 32. May I accom- 
pany you (frm.") ? 33. I shall go to-night. 34. Have you not seen 
the magnificent lace at Rico's? 35. My best friend is not a teacher. 
He is a doctor. 36. You should study every evening. 


98. Subjunctive Mode. 

The use of the subjunctive has become very rare in English. 
It will be recognized in the following examples: 

If it be he, let him come in. 

Were I you, I should go to-morrow. 

I desire that he come at once. 

In Spanish, on the other hand, the use of the subjunctive is 
so common that there is a whole range of ideas which cannot be 
expressed without a knowledge of its forms. To express these 
ideas, the subjunctive has a full complement of tenses, both simple 
and compound, one to correspond to each tense of the indicative. 

99. Subjunctive and Indicative. 

A verb in the indicative, in both English and Spanish, makes a 
direct statement, either positive or negative, or asks a direct ques- 
tion. It is used in simple sentences and independent clauses. 

John is sick. 

The wind is blowing, but it is not cold. 

Has John gone, or is he still in his room ? 


A verb in the subjunctive cannot make a direct statement or 
ask a direct question. It is employed, in general, in dependent 
clauses, whose meaning is intelligible only in connection with the 
idea expressed in the principal clause. In the following examples, 
the verb in the dependent clause would be expressed in Spanish 
by the subjunctive: . 

I wish that he would come. 

Do you know a man who can fix bicycles? 

It is too bad that he is so thoughtless. 

They will stay until he comes. 

100. Present Subjunctive. The endings of the pres- 
ent subjunctive are, in regular verbs, added to the stem of 
the infinitive. 


-e -a 

-es -as 

-e -a 

-emos -amos 

-6is -ais 

-en -an 

Applying these endings to stems of familiar regular verbs, we 

pregunte res pond a 

prcguntes respondas 

pregunte responda 

preguntemos respondamos 

pregunteis respcnddis 

pregunten respondan 

Note. The stress in the present subjunctive is the same as in the pres- 
ent indicative. Note that, contrary to what is true in the indicative, the 
characteristic vowel of the present subjunctive is not that of the infinitive. 

101. Subjunctive in Dependent Object Clauses. The 

subjunctive is regularly used in Spanish in a dependent 
noun clause which is the object of a verb in the main clause 
that expresses (a) some idea of willing or causing, such 
as a command, a request, a prohibition or a permission. 
Le digo d vsted que no entre. I tell you not to go in. 

Mi padre ha prohibido que vaya alia. My father has forbidden 
me to go there. 


(b) Some emotion such as fear, desire or hope. 

Espera que me halle bueno. She hopes that I am well. 
Temo que no estudie bastante. I fear he doesn't study enough. 
iQuiere Vd. que entre ahoraf Do you want me to go in now? 

REMARK. 'Verbs of this group are followed by the indicative or 
infinitive, if there is no change of subject. 

Espero que la hallare mejor de salud. I hope I shall find her 

Espero hallarla mejor de salud. I hope to find her better. 

Desea entrar en segulda. He wishes to come in at once. 

102. Subjunctive in Dependent Subject Clauses. The 
subjunctive is used in a noun clause which stands as logical 
subject of ser used impersonally. 

Es probable que la veames esta tarde. It is probable that we 
shall see her this afternoon. 

EXCEPTION. Impersonal ser used to state a certainty, is followed 
by the indicative. 

Es cierto que no aprendemos m-ucho. It is certain that we are 
not learning much. 

REMARK. Impersonal ser is followed by an infinitive if the 
dependent verb has no expressed subject. 

Es preciso ir ahora. It is necessary to go now. 

103. Sequence of Tenses. A verb in the dependent 
clause is in the present subjunctive if the verb in the main 
clause is present, future or perfect indicative. 

Le dire que entre. I shall tell her to come' in. (See also ex- 
amples above.) 

Note. The time expressed by the present subjunctive is identical with 
that of the verb of the main clause, or subsequent to it. 

104. Irregular Present Subjunctives. The presejiL 
subjunctives of most irregular verbs are irregular. Learn 
those of ir and ver (see 535 and 546). 

105. Dependent Infinitives. Many verbs which ad- 
mit of a dependent infinitive do not require a preposition 
between verb and infinitive. To this class belong querer, 


desear, deber and poder. Note the following examples of 
verbs which do require a preposition.* 

Me enseno a hablar bien. He taught me to speak well. 

Aprendemos a escribir. We are learning to write. 

Vamos a comer. We are going to eat. 

Tratar de ser bueno. To try to be good. 


al fin, adv., finally, at last. mismo, own. 

a menudo, adv., often, frequently. molestar, to trouble. 

bastante, adv., enough. momenta, moment. 

bueno de salud, in good health. no mas que, only. 

cierto, certain, sure. nota, note, mark (in school). 

dejar, to let, allow. particular, private. 

delgado, thin, slender. permitir, to permit, let, allow. 

despeinado, dishevelled. posible, possible. 

edad, f., age. precise, necessary. 

en seguida, adv., at once. probable, probable. 

espcrar, to hope, expect. prohibir, to forbid. 

escalera, stairs. pronto, adv., soon. 

fuerte, strong. sola, parlor. 

guisar, to cook. silla, chair. 

hasta, prep., as far as, up to, sucio, dirty. 

until. temer, to fear, be afraid. 

malo de salud, in poor health. tratar de, to try to. 


a. (Dos senoras estan sentadas en la sala de una casa par- 

Se dice que su hijo Alfonso no esta muy bueno de salud. 

Temo que no se halle tan fuerte como desearia. 

Es cierto que esta mas delgado que algunos ninos de su misma 

Es muy probable que estudie demasiado. Le he prohibido que 
trabaje por la noche, pero el desea mucho tener buenas notas, y 
su padre le esta diciendo siempre que trate de ser el mejor de la 

iEsta en casa su hija? 

Si, esta; pero esta en la cocina, aprendiendo {or donde esta 
aprendiendo) a guisar, y esta tan sucia y despeinada que no puedo 
permitir que entre aqui. 

,jNo me hace Vd. el favor de dejarle que entre no mas que 
por un momento? Deseo tanto verla. 

* Hereafter, verbs that require a preposition before a dependent infini- 
tive, will be indicated in the vocabularies. 


(La madre permite a la nina que entre, y los tres hablan por 
un rato. Al fin la senora se levanta para marcharse, y la madre 
de la nina le dice:) 

i Se va Vd. tan pronto ? 

Si, senora. Es precise que me halle en casa antes de las seis. 

Entonces la acompanare a Vd. hasta la puerta de la escalcra. 

No quiero que Vd. se moleste. 

Espero que Vd. nos visite a menudo. Nuestra casa esta tan 
cerca de la suya. 

b. iQue se dice de Alfonso? 
iQtie teme su madre? 

iNo es cierto que esta fuerte? 
iEs posible que trabaje demasiado? 
iQue le ha prohibido su madre? 
iQuien le ha dicho que trate de tener buenas notas? 
iQue mas le dice su padre? 

iPor que no quiere esta senora que su hija entre en la sala? 
i Por que es preciso que la otra senora se marche tan temprano? 
Al acompanar a la senora hasta la puerta, ique le dice la madre 
de la nina? 

c. iNo quiere Vd. que vea su libro? 
,;Desea Vd. que estudiemos juntos? 

,; No me ha dicho Vd. que repase mis lecciones ahora ? 

,; No espera Vd. que nuestra madre nos compre algo en esta 

I Quiere Vd. que mi madre le ensene a guisar? ^a hablar es- 
panol ? 

iMe permite Vd. que vaya a casa de Luisa? 

iQue edad tiene su hijo de Vd. ? 


106. Radical-changing Verbs. There is a large group 
of Spanish verbs whose only irregularity consists of the 
systematic substitution, under certain conditions, of another 
vowel, or a diphthong, for the stem vowel (i. e., the vowel 
of the syllable that precedes the ending). 

Ex. dormir, to sleep; duenno, I sleep; entender, to understand; 
entiendo, I understand. 


These verbs are called radical-changing (i. e., root- 
changing). They are divided into three classes according 
to the character of their vowel changes. In the infinitive 
they are not to be distinguished from verbs that are not rad- 

107. First Class. Verbs of this class belong to the 
first or second conjugation, and have stem- vowel e or o. 
They change stem-vowel e to ie, and stem-vowel o to ue, 
in all forms whose stress falls on the stem. The forms al- 
ready learned which have such stress are the present indica- 
tive and subjunctive, all of the singular, and the third per- 
son plural. The verbs given below are representative of 
this class. Forms not given may be assumed to be regular. 

ENTENDER, to understand. 
PRES. INDIC. entiendo, entiendes, entiende, entendemos, entendeis, 


PRES. SUBJ. entienda, entiendas, entienda, entendamos, entendais, 

Vou'ER, to turn, to return.* 

PRES. INDIC. vuelvo, vuelves, vuelve, volvemos, volveis, vuelven. 
PRES. SUBJ. vuelva, vuelvas, vuelva, volvamos, volvais, vuclvan 

108. Second Class. Verbs of this class belong to the 
third conjugation and have stem-vowel e or o. They change 
these stem-vowels in the same way as do verbs of the first 
class, and in the same places. In addition they change stem- 
vowel e to i, and o to u (i) in the present subjunctive, first 
and second persons plural, and (2) in those forms whose 
ending begins with 16 or ie. This last change occurs in the 
past definite, third person singular and plural, and in the 
present participle. 

SENTIR, to feel, regret, be sorry. 

Pur:?. TNTITC. sicnto, sientes, siente, sentimos, sentis, sienfen. 
Piu:s. SUBJ. sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintdis, sientan. 
PAST DEF. senti, sentiste, sintio, sentimos, sentisteis, sintieron. 

* Volver has in addition an irregular past participle, vuelto. 


DORMIR, to sleep. 


PRES. INDIC. duermo, ducrmes, duerme, dormimos, dormis, duermen. 

PRES. SUBJ. duerma, duennas, duenna, durmamos, dunndis, duer- 

PAST DEF. dormi, dormiste, durmid, dormimos, dormisteis, dur- 


109. Third Class. Verbs of this class belong to the 
third conjugation, and all have the stem- vowel e. This 
stem-vowel is changed to i in all forms whose stress falls 
on the stem (i. e., the present indicative and subjunctive, 
all of the singular, and the third person plural). In addition 
they change e to i (i) in the present subjunctive, first and 
second persons plural, and (2) in those forms whose end- 
ings begin with io or ie. 

VESTIR, to dress. 


PRES. INDIC. visto, vistes, viste, vestimos, vestis, vis ten. 
PRES. SUBJ. vista, -vistas, vista, vistamos, vistais, vision. 
PAST DEF. vesti, vestiste, vistid, vestimos, vestisteis, visticron. 


Conjugate the radical -changing verbs in the vocabulary, and 
also recomendar and encontrar, which are radical-changing of the 
first class. 

110. Irregular Present Subjunctives. The present 
subjunctives of querer and poder may be conveniently 
learned at this point," since they are just like the present 
subjunctives of radical-changing verbs of the first class. 
(See 537 and 539.) 

111. The adjectives bueno, malo, alguno, "some," 
ninguno, "no," primero, "first," tercero, "third," and pos- 
trero, "last," may stand before their noun or another adjec- 
tive. In this position trie masculine form loses its final o. 

el primer hombre; ningun buen teatro; algtin mucJiacho. 


112. Mismo (-a, -os, -as), "self," is often used to in- 
tensify a noun or pronoun subject, or a prepositional reflex- 
ive pronoun. 

Mi padre mismo me llaniS. My father called me himself. 

Ellas mismas entraron. They themselves came in. 

El miichacho se enseiio a si mismo. The boy taught himself 


acoslarse, to lie down, go to bed los dos, las dos, the two, both. 

(R-ch I)* indicar, to indicate, show. 

agitja, needle, hand (of a watch). medianoche, f., midnight. 

anoche, adv., last night. nuevo, new. 

aunque, conj., although. olvidar, to forget. 

comedia, play, comedy. parte, f., part. 

de prisa, adv., fast, rapidly por complete, adv., completely. 

despacio, adv., slowly. por lo comun, adv., ordinarily. 

despertar, to wake (transitive, raramente, adv., rarely. 

R-ch. I). representar, to act, play, give, 
despertarse, to awake, wake up. (of shows). 

divertirse, to enjoy oneself, to sabio, learned. 

have a good time (R-ch. II). teatro, theater. 

hasta, prep., until. vestirse, to dress (intransitive). 

interesante, interesting. volverse, to return, go back 
lo que that which, what, that come back. 

(relative pron.) 


a. El padre de Carlos es un hombre muy sabio. Hablando 
con el siempre aprendo algo. Aunque no entiendo muy bien el 
espanol, el habla siempre tan despacio que entiendo perfectamente 
todo lo que dice. (El dice raramente cosas que no puedo entender 
perfectamente.) Los quiero a los dos (a el y a su hijo). Algun 
dia iremos juntos a visitarlos. Anoche fui con ellos al teatro, donde 
se represento una comedia nueva. Me diverti muchisimo y no volvi 
a casa hasta medianoche (las doce de la noche). Me acoste en 
seguida. Por lo comun mi padre me despierta cuando el se levanta ; 
pero esta manana el mismo durmio hasta las ocho, y al desper- 
tarse, me olvido por completo. Cuando yo me desperte, la primera 
cosa que hice fue mirar mi reloj, y vi que las agujas indicaban las 
nueve menos veinte. Me levante en seguida y me vesti muy de 

b. En la primera parte de esta leccion, <:quien esta hablando? 
iDe qttien esta hablando? 

In succeeding vocabularies all radical-changing verbs will be noted. 


iQue clase de persona es el padre de Carlos? 

iEntiende el muchacho lo que dice? 

iNo habla demasiado de prisa? 

iDonde fueron los tres anoche? 

iLes gusto la comedia? 

iDonde se represento la comedia? 

iSe volvieron temprano a casa estos senores? 

iQue hicieron entonces? 

c. iMe entiende Vd. cuando hablo de prisa? 

iQuieren Vds. que hable mas despacio? 

For lo comun, i a que hora se despierta Vd. por la maiiana ? 

iLe despierta a Vd. su madre? 

iQue hace Vd. cuando tiene sueno? 

i Se acuesta Vd. tarde 6 temprano ? 

iA que hora, por lo comun? 

iA que hora es preciso que se acuesten los ninos? 

Despues de la clase, ise vuelven Vds. en seguida a casa? 

Al levantarse, ique hace Vd. primero? y despues? 

iQuiere Vd. que le recomiende un buen maestro de espanol? 

Espero que Vds. se diviertan. 

Espero que Vd. duerma bien. 


113. Two Pronoun-objects. When a verb has two 
pronoun-objects, one direct and the other indirect, both are 
commonly expressed by the regular forms, whose position 
with regard to the verb is the same as that of a single pro- 
noun-object (see 65).* The indirect object regularly pre- 
cedes the direct, though the reflexive of the third person, se, 
always comes first, whether direct or indirect. 

Mi padre me lo did. My father gave it to me. 

Lo compre para dartelo. I bought it to give to you. 

ensenandomela, showing it to me. 

Ella se lo hizo. She made it for herself. 

Juan se me presents. John introduced himself to me. 

* Posterior position of two object-pronouns always makes necessary 
written accent on the verb-form. 


114. Substitute Pronoun se. Two pronoun-objects 
beginning with the letter 1 may not stand side by side; so 
if both objects are of the third person, for the first (which 
would be the indirect le or les), is substituted a form se. 
This se must not be confused in use with the reflexive se. 

5V lo (not le lo) he dado. I have given it to him (you, her). 
ddndoselas, (not les las), giving them to them (to you). 

115. Double Pronoun Object Construction. This 
construction, which was explained in 66, is used also with 
one of two pronoun-objects, for the sake of contrast or em- 

Ella me lo ha dado a mi. She has given it to me. 

A mi me lo han ensenado. They have shown it to me. 

a. It is very commonly used to clear up ambiguity caused by 
the use of the substitute pronoun se. 

Se lo he dado a el (a usted, d ella). I have given it to him 
(to you, to her). 

Voy d ensendrselo a Vds. (d ellos, d ellas). I am going to 
show it to you (to them). 

116. Prepositional Object Pronoun used alone. The 

prepositional object pronoun (d mi, d usted, etc.) ordinarily 
accompanies a regular object pronoun of the same gender, 
number and person, which it intensifies or explains. In a 
few cases, however, it is used instead of the regular object- 

a. If the direct object of a 'verb is me, te, nos or os, the 
indirect object assumes the prepositional form. 

Me han rccomendado d Vd. They have recommended me to 

Os presentardn d ella. They will introduce you to her. 

b. It is used when the verb which governs the pronoun, hav- 
ing been previously expressed is not repeated. 

5V los he dado d el, pero no d ella. I gave them to him, but not 
to her. 

I A quien buscaf A Vd. For whom is he looking? For you. 

c. Instead of using the indirect object pronoun to express the 
person for whom something is done, it is current to use para with 
the prepositional form. 

Lo he comprado para Vd. I bought it for you. 

Mi madre lo hiso para mi. Mother made it for me. 


117. Neuter Gender. Since in Spanish all names of 
beings and things are masculine or feminine, only the names 
of ideas and qualities may be neuter. 

a. The definite article has a neuter form lo, which may be 
used before the masculine singular form of the adjective, to ex- 
press the notion of quality. 

lo bueno, that which is good. 

lo azul, blue (that which is blue). 

b. Related to the personal pronouns are the neuter subject 
and prepositional form cllo, and the neuter object and predicate 
form lo. Both are used to refer to ideas or sentences. 

Se dice que Juan no estd fuerte. No puedo creerlo. They say 
John is not strong. I can't believe it. 

Ello es que no estd fuerte. The "thing of it" is, he is not 

Quiero informarme de ello. I want to find out about it. 

Lo is often used in the second part of a compound sentence to 
avoid repetition of an idea of the first part, and in answers with 
the verb scr, to avoid repetition of part of the question. 

Juan estd enfermo y su hermana lo estd tambien. John is sick 
and his sister is too. 

Maria es aplicada pero su hermano no lo es. Mary is indus- 
trious but her brother is not. 

jEs usted medic of Lo soy. Are you a doctor? I am. 

c. The neuter demonstrative pronouns esto, eso and aquello. 
are used to point out a sentence or idea. 

Esto es malo. This matter is bad. 

Aquello de Juan. That matter concerning John. 

Eso que yd. me dice. That which you tell me. 

d. The neuter form of the possessive pronoun expresses in 
a general way the idea of possession or property. 

lo mio, that which is mine. 

118. Irregular verb dar, "to give." The Participles, 
Imperfect, Future and Conditional of dar are regular. 
Learn the Present Indicative and Subjunctive, and the Past 
Definite. (See 530.) 

119. Omission of Definite and Indefinite Articles. 
Both articles are regularly omitted before a noun in appo- 

El Sr. Fernandez, medico famoso. Mr. Fernandez, a famous 

Alfonso, Rey de Espana. Alphonso, the King of Spain. 


120. Idiomatic. Acabar. The verb acabar, "to finish," 
is used idiomatically in the present or imperfect, followed 
by de and an infinitive, to describe an act as just completed 
in the present or in the past. 

Acabo de llegar. I have just arrived, 

Acababan de estudiar. They had just been studying, 


amarlllo, yellow. noticia, piece of news. 

atreverse a, to dare to. preferir, to prefer (R-ch. II). 

azul, blue. pucs, conj., then, for, well. 

enfermedad, f., illness. qucrer decir, to mean. 
joven, m., f., young man, young recibir, to receive. 

woman. suplicar, to entreat, beg (see 73 
llorar, to cry. and loia). 

morirse, to die (R-ch. II).* verdadero, true. 


a. iQue quiere decir esto? iPor que esta Vd. llorando? iQue 
tiene Vd. ? (What is the matter with you?) 

Acabo de recibir una noticia muy mala. 

iQue hay? (What is the matter?) 

Ello es que mi tio Juan, hermano de mi madre, esta muy en- 
fermo, y que se teme que se muera. 

i Quien se lo ha dicho ? 

Me lo dijo mi hermano. A el se lo dijo mi tia misma. 

Entonces la noticia tiene que ser verdadera. iSe lo ha dicho Vd. 
a su madre? 

No sefior ; no me atrevo a decirselo. 

Pues Vd. debe hacerlo en seguida. Si Vd. no quiere, yo mismo 
lo hare. 

iMe hace Vd. ese favor? 

b. i Quien. le dio a la nina la noticia de la enfermedad de su 

iDe quien tuvo (or recibio) su hermano la noticia? 

i Se la dio la nina a su madre? 

i Por que ? 

i Quien le hizo a la nina el favor de decirselo a su madre? 

c. La nina tiene muchas flores azules y amarillas. Se las dio 
Juan, joven que la quiere mucho. A la nina no le gusta mucho lo 

* Also has irregular past participle muerto. 


nmarillo. Prefiere lo azul ; por consiguiente las floras amarillas 
las va a dar a su hermana. Le he suplicado que me las de a mi, 
pero ella no quiere hacerlo (or no lo quiere). Me dice Se las 
dare a mi hermana, pero no a Vd. 

d. iQue color le gusta mas a la niiia? 

iQue color prefiere la nifia? 

iCual es el color de las flores que el joven le ha dado a la 

<;Se las quiere dar ella a la joven, amiga de su hermana? 

iA quien se las va a dar ella? 

I Prefiere Vd. lo azul a lo amarillo ? 

i Quiere Vd. que le presente a mi amigo? 

I Se le presento Juan (a Vd.) ? 

,; Quien se le presento (a Vd.) ? 

iSon Vds. discipulos del sefior Suarez? 

iHa recibido V. noticia de ello? 



ARTICLE (a) omission of definite and indefinite (119) 

(b) neuter forms (1173) 
ADJECTIVE (a) lose final o (in) 

(b) mismo, "self" (112) 
PRONOUN (a) personal d) position of two objects (113) 

(2) substitute se (114) 

(3) double object construction (115) 

(4) prepositional form alone used (116) 

(5) neuter ello and lo (ii7b) 

(b) possessive, neuter forms (nyd) 

(c) demonstrative, neuter forms (1170) 
VERB (a) Regular (i) subjunctive mode (98, 99) 

(2) use in subject clauses (loa) 

(3) use in object clausas (101) 

(4) subjunctive present (100) 

(5) subjunctive sequence of tenses (103) 

(6) infinitive, dependent (105) 

(b) Irregular (i) present subjunctive of ir, ver, poder, querer 
(104, no) 

(2) dar (118) 

(3) radical-changing verbs (106-109) 
MISCELLANEOUS Idiomatic, acabar (120) 


Turn into Spanish. I. Yellow is not so pretty as blue. 2. Is 
it hard to get up early in the winter? 3. This young man has a 
great deal of ability. 4. They had just received the news of Juan 
Rico's illness. 5. The child could not speak of it without crying 


6 That is what I mean. 7. Both were dirty and dishevelled 
8. I have just waked up. g. The servant says that she is sorry 
she can not let them come in. 10. I want very much to go to the 
theatre and see a play. n. It is necessary for the children to 
sleep a good deal. 12. There are only three chairs in the parlor. 
13. She herself gave them to me. 14. It is true that I did not 
go back home until noon. 15. I beg you to permit me to come in 
for a moment. 16. That is the most interesting age. 17. This 
is the third month of the year. 18. The children tried not to 
trouble their teacher. 19. Do you dare to return home late? 
20. Of course she is very sick, but they are not afraid that she is 
going to die. 21. It is not probable that I shall go to bed soon. 
22. Are you willing to give them to me? 23. I did not give them 
to him, but to her. 24. For whom did you buy it? For you. 
25. At last I understand you. 26. We often go there in the 
evening. 27. Every one likes to receive a good piece of news. 
28. In this street there is a magnificent private house. I want 
you to see it. 29. In what part of Europe have they been travel- 
ing? 30. They will wait for us an hour and a half. 31. Last 
night they had a good time at Charles's. 32. I shall not forget 
what you told me. 33. Ordinarily I prefer what is new. 34. The 
hands of my watch indicated a quarter before eleven. 35. His 
father tells him to get up and dress himself at once. 36. Is your 
father a teacher of French? He is. 37. You are a good boy. 
38. No man is as learned as he wants to be. 39. She is not in 
good health, and her father has forbidden her to study so much. 
40. Will you please speak more slowly? 


121. Subjunctive in Main Clauses. The first or third 
person present subjunctive often occurs in expressions which 
may be construed as clauses depending upon an unexpressed 
wish or command. 

Que Vd. descanse. May you rest well. 

Que suban. Let them come up. 

Comamos ahora. Let us eat now.* 

* Ir is the only verb which has a special form (vamos instead of 
vayamos) to use in this sort of subjunctive clause. 


a. If the subject of such a sentence be a noun expressed, either 
que may precede it, or que may be omitted and the subject follow 
the verb. 

Que Juan suba en seguida. Let John come up at once. 
Suba Juan en seguida. Let John come up at once. 

b. Object pronouns precede the verb if it be negative or intro- 
duced by que. Otherwise they are attached to the verb, which re- 
quires a written accent on the stressed syllable. 

No lo compremos. Let us not buy it. 
No lo compre Juan. Let John not buy it. 
Que Juan lo compre. \ T . T , , 
Comprelo Juan. } Let J ohn buv ll - 

Comprcmoslo. Let us buy it. 

NOTE. A reflexive verb used in this way drops the s of the 
first person plural. 

Desayuncmonos. Let us have breakfast. 

122. Present Subjunctive as Imperative. It is but a 

step from the indirect commands just described to the direct 
imperative. This is regularly expressed by the present sub- 
junctive, third person singular or plural, with usted 
(ustedes) expressed or implied. 

Coma yd. ahora. Coman Vds. ahora. Eat now. 

Vayan Vds. en seguida. Go at once. 

No corra Vd. tanto. Don't run so much. 

a. In positive commands the object pronouns are joined to 
the verb form, which must be accented; in negative commands they 
precede the verb. 

Esperenme yds. Wait for me. 

Compremelo Vd. Buy it for me. 

No me lo compre Vd. Don't buy it for 


123. Irregular Present Subjunctives. L/earn the ir- 
regular present subjunctives of ser, estar, tener, hacer, 
decir, haber. (See 53 1 -534, 542-543-) 

Note that the present subjunctives of tener, hacer and 
decir are formed on the same stem as the first person pres- 
ent indicative, and that the present subjunctive of estar i? 
regular except for the accent in four forms. 

124. Verbs with Inceptive Endings. For these verbs 
see 513, and learn irregularities of conocer. 



adelante, adv., forward. familia, family. 

/Adios! Good-bye. How do frase, f., phrase, sentence. 

you do? gracias, thanks. 

amabilidad, f., amiability, kind- luego, adv., at once, soon, bye 

ness. and bye. 

aprovechar, to be of profit. modo, way, manner. 

bondad, f., goodness. novedad, f., novelty, change. 

caballero, gentleman, Sir. orden, f., order, command. 

comprender, to understand. perdonar, forgive, excuse. 

conocer, to know {i.e., to be ac- sentarse, to sit down (R-ch. I). 

quainted with), to make the senorito, -a, young gentleman, 

acquaintance of. lady. 

conocido, acquaintance. Senorita, Miss. 

dcscansar, to rest. servidor, -a, servant (not used 
despedirse (de), to say good- literally). 

bye (to) (R-ch. III). servir, to serve (R-ch. III). 

Dios, God. servir se, to help oneself. 

cmplcar, to use, employ. siguiente, following. 

encontrarse, to find oneself, to be jVaya! The idea! (from fr). 

(R-ch. I). vista, sight, view. 


(A.) Buenos diets, Sr. Sudrez. Good morning, Mr. Suarez. 

Buenas tardes, Sra. Rico. Good afternoon, Mrs. Rico. 

Buenas noches, Juan. Good evening, John. 

These are the ordinary salutations. The reply may be in the 
same words, or : 

Muy buenos los tenga Vd. Good morning to you. 

Muy buenas las tenga Vd. Good afternoon (evening) to you. 

Still more formal replies are : Servidor de Vd. A la orden 
de Vd. 

Acknowledging a greeting one may say : Tanto gusto en verle 
a Vd. 

f Adios Carlos! is a very informal greeting to intimate friends. 

A greeting is commonly followed by an inquiry as to the other 
person's health, using one of the following forms : 

iComo esta Vd.? 

iComo se halla Vd.? 

jComo se encuentran Vds.? 

jComo lo pasa Vd.? (Literally, How are you passing it?) 

More informal are: iComo le va? and Hola, ique talf equiv- 
alent to "How goes it"? 

Note the replies: Muy bien, gracias. Bien, gracias /y Vd.? 
A si a~,i. A si fcasando. (After a fashion.) Sin novedad. 


To inquire about the health of the members ot another's fam 

jComo estd su senor padre? 

jComo se halla su seiiora madrc? 

iComo se encuentra su senor esposof 

iComo estdn los de su casaf 

lC6mo estd la familiaf 

A gentleman does not inquire about the health of another 
gentleman's wife or sisters, unless he happens to be an intimate 
friend. He says instead : 

jY como estdn en casa? 

On taking leave, Buenos dias, Buenas tardes and Bucnas noches 
are used. Also, more formally : 

Vaya Vd. con Dios. (To one leaving.) 

Quede Vd. con Dios. (To one left behind.) 

yd. lo pase bien. (May it go well with you.) 

Adios is less formal, and less commonly used than is generally 

On leaving anyone at night, we may say : Que Vd. descanse, 
and to one who is going to the theatre or other place of amuse- 
ment, Que Vd. se divierta. 

Very commonly used among acquaintances are : 

Hasta manana. Until to-morrow. 

Hasta luego. See you later. (That is, in the course of the 

Hasta la vista or Hasta otra vista. (Indefinite.) 

"Please" is expressed by Sirvasc (Sirvanse), Hdgame Vd. el 
favor de..., Tengan Yds. la bondad de..., Tenga Vd. la amabili- 
dad de... The first is generally used when one wishes to confer 
a favor, the others when one asks a favor. 

Sirvase Vd. senior se. 

Tenga Vd. la bondad de hablar mas dcspacio. 

Hdgame Vd. el favor del pan. 

The expression already given in an earlier lesson, jMe liace 
Vd. el favor? is a shade more courteous because of the interroga- 
tive form. 

On entering the dining-room of a boarding-house, or the com- 
partment of a train, it is proper to greet those already seated. On 
leaving the table before the others are through, one says: Que 
Ics apro'ceche a Vds. 

To ask another person to repeat what he has said : 

jQuc ha dicho Vd.? No le comprendo (entiendo) muy bien. 
Perddncme Vd. No he entendido. 


Instead of passing through a door ahead of another, one should 
say: Pase Vd. Senor (Senora}. The same phrase means "come 
in," if used on opening the door to a person who has knocked. 
If one does not go to the door, "come in" is expressed by /Ade- 

Caballero, Sir, is always more courteous than Senor, in address. 

Note the following: 

Salude Vd. a su seiiora madre. Remember me to your mother. 

Permitame que le presents a mi amigo, el Sr. Fernandez. 

Tanto (or mucho) gusto en conocerle, Seiior. 

Sicntese Vd. {Tome Vd. asiento.) 

No se molcste Vd. 

Muchisimas gracias. No hay de que. (Don't mention it.) 

(B.) iComo se dicen en espanol las frases siguientes? Good 
morning. Excuse me. Kindly pass the bread, etc. 

iQue frase empleamos para presentar a una persona a otra? 

i Como se responde ? 

Al entrar en un comedor donde hay varias personas, ique se 

iQue quiere decir en ingles "hasta luego"? 

iQue decimos al despedirnos de un amigo que se va? 

i Que frase empleamos cuando no entendemos bien lo que otra 
persona ha dicho? 

iCuales son los varios modos de saludar a un conocido? 

iComo se pregunta por la salud de una persona? 


125. Imperfect Subjunctives. There are two simple 
past tenses of the subjunctive, the First and Second Imper- 
fect. Their endings are added to the stem of the infinitive. 
The endings for the second and third conjugations are the 



-ase -iese -ara -iera 

-ases -ieses -aras -ieras 

-ase -iese -ara -iera 

-asemos -iesemos -aramos -ieramos 

-aseis -ieseis -arais -ierais 

-asen -iesen -aran -ieran 

Observe the written accent on the first person plural, and note that 
the stress is in all forms on the first syllable of the ending. 



Apply these endings to stems of familiar regular verbs, such 
as : acabar, aprender, perdonar, ocurrir, permitir, responder. 

126. Use of Imperfect Subjunctives. The first and 
second imperfect subjunctives are interchangeable. The 
first is the commoner of the two. The commonest use of 
the imperfect subjunctives is in a dependent clause when 
the verb of the main clause is imperfect, past definite, plu- 
perfect or conditional. 

No era posible que fuese (fuera) ayer. It was not possible 
for him to go yesterday. 

Le dije que entrase (entrara) en seguida. I told him to go 
in at once. 

Mi madre me habia mandado que subiese (subiera). My moth- 
er had told me to go up. 

Me gustaria que V. comiese (comiera) con nosotros. I should 
like to have you eat with us. 

Note. The time expressed by the imperfect subjunctive is identical 
with the time of the verb in the main clause, or subsequent to it. 

127. Irregular Imperfect Subjunctives. The imper- 
fect subjunctive of any irregular verb may be found if we 
know its past definite, by substituting for the final -ron of 
the third person plural, -se or -ra. This is not a scientific 
but a practical method for deriving these forms. 

sentir; sintieron; sintiera; siiitiese. 
dortnir; durmieron; durmiese; durmiera. 
ser; fueron; fuese; fuera. ^ 
hacer; hicieron; hiciese; hiciera. 
dar; dieron; diese; diera. 


Conjugate the imperfect subjunctives of estar, haber, tener, 
querer, ir, poder, decir. 

128. Conditions Contrary to Fact. In present con- 
ditions contrary to fact (i. e., conditions which state that if 
a certain thing were true, something else would be true also), 
the imperfect subjunctive (either one) is used in the condi- 


tion (the "if -clause") and the conditional is used in the con- 

5*i fuesemos ricos, comprariamos una casa. If we were rich 
we should buy a house. 

Si mi hermano no estudiara tanto, seria mas amable. If my 
brother did not study so much, he would be more agreeable. 

a. In conditions contrary to fact, the imperfect subjunctive in 
-ra may be substituted for the conditional in the conclusion. 

Si tuviese dinero, iria (fuera) a Madrid. If I had money I 
should go to Madrid. 

b. In a condition contrary to fact, the conclusion or the condi- 
tion may stand first. 

Trabajaria mas, si fuese yd. I should work harder, if I were 

Note. In general, aside from conditions contrary to fact, conditional 
sentences offer no difficulty in Spanish. The indicative is generally em- 
ployed in both clauses. 

Si soy rico, es porque he trabajado mucho. If I urn rich it is because I 
have worked hard. 

129. "I should like ..." This useful expression may 
be expressed by Desearia, by Me gustaria, or by Quisiera. 
Either expression is followed by an infinitive if there is no 
change of subject, or by que and the imperfect subjunctive 
if there is. 

Desearia ir con Vd. I should like to go with you. 

Me gustaria comer ahora. I should like to eat now. 

Quisiera tener buenas notas-. I should like to have good marks. 

Desearia que Vd. volviese en seguida. I should like to have you 
return at once. 

Me gustaria que mi hijo no fumara tanto. I wish my son would 
not smoke so much. 

No quisicra que Vd. fuese tan perezoso como Juan. I should 
not like to have you be as lazy as John. 

a. The use of these constructions is of course extended to 
other persons than the first. 

A mi padre no Ic gustaria mucho que mi hermano fuese con 
Vd. My father would not like very much to have my brother go 
with you. 

130. Irregular verbs salir and vcnir. Learn the con- 
jugation of salir, "to come out," "go out," and venir, "to 
come." (See 541 and 547.) 


131. Days, Months and Seasons. The days of the 
week are: domingo (Sunday), lunes, martes, miercoles, 
jueves, viernes, sabado. The months of the year are: 
enero, febrero, marzo, abril, mayo, junio, Julio, agosto, 
septiembre,* octubre, noviembre, diciembre. The sea- 
sons are : la primavera, el verano, el otono, el invierno. 

Note. Names of the seasons are generally accompanied by 
the article. 

132. Use of Definite Article. Many expressions of 
time that are used with adverbial force, are accompanied 
by the article, though not in English. 

la semana pasada, last week. la semana proximo, la semana 
el ailo pasado, last year. que viene, next week. 

los viernes, on Fridays, every el afio prdxlmo, next year. 

Friday. el lunes, on -Monday. 


al ano, per year. pucs, conj., well. 

al mes, per month. semana, week. 

antier, day before yesterday. sentirse bueno, to feel well. 

contento, satisfied. todos los dias, every day. 

desgraciadamcnte, adv., unfortu- ultimo, last (the very last). 

nately. vcrdad, f., truth. 

error, m., error. vez, i., time (one of a number 

parece, it seems. of times)i 

pasado, last (in the sense of una vez, once. 

just past). dos veces, twice. 
proximo, next. 


a. ^ For que no salio Vd. con los demas discipulos? 

Porque el maestro no me permitio que saliese. 

iQue le decia el maestro cuando vine? 

Me estaba diciendo que trabajase mas. 

Pero Vd. es uno de los mejores discipulos de la clase. 

No soy tan bueno como a Vd. le parece; pero es cierto que he 
trabajado, y sentiria mucho que el maestro no estuvicsc contento 
conmigo. Si no hubiera (hubiese) estudiado, no habria hecho tan 
bien hasta ahora. Desgraciadamente, esta nianana, al escribir el 

Pronounced and sometimes spelled, sctiembre. 


ejercicio en el pizarron, hice muchos errores de gramatica. La 
verdad es que toda la semana pasada no me he sentido bueno, y 
antier mi madre me prohibio que estudiase mas por la noche. 
Pues, si yo fuera Vd., se lo diria todo al maestro. 

b. iCuantas horas al dia trabaja Vd. ? 

iCuando se marcha Vd. ? (Answer in as many ways as pos- 

iCuantos dias hay en la semana? iCuales son? 

iCuales son los meses del ano? 

iCuantos dias ticne el mes de enero? iel mes de junio? 

iCuantas semanas en un mes? 

iCual es el primer dia de la semana? iel tercero? iel pos- 

iCual es el dia que viene despues del lunes? 

iQue mes viene despues de marzo? 

iCuales son los meses de la primavera? idel verano? ,;del 
otofio? jdel invierno? 

iQue dia de la semana es hoy? (also <;Hoy, que es? or iQue dia 
es hoy?) 

Hoy es miercoles. 

iQue dia fue ayer? isera mafiana? 

iA cuantos del mes estamos hoy? (What day of the month 
is it? Use cardinal numerals in replying, to give any date except 
the "first.") 

Estamos a veinticuatro. 

iEn que mes estamos ahora? 

Estamos en agosto. 


133. Subjunctive in Adverb Clauses. The subjunc- 
tive is used in an adverb clause (i. e., a clause which, like 
an adverb, limits the action of the verb of the main clause) 
which expresses result, purpose, contingency, uncertainty or 
action in indefinite future time., 

a. Such clauses are generally introduced by a conjunction or 
conjunctive phrase. The commonest of these are: para que, "in 
order that," "so that," aunque, "although," "even if," sin que, "with- 
out," a menos que, "unless/' antes que, "before," luego que, "as soon 
as," niientras que, "while," hasta que, "until," and cuando, "when." 


Hablo muy despacio para que Vd. me entienda bien. 1 speak 
very slowly in order that you may understand me easily. 

Me dijo que iria, aunque su padre no se lo pennitiese. He told 
me he should go, even if his father did not permit him to. 

Lo hizo sin que su padre se lo dijese. He did it without his 
father telling him to. 

Repasare el periodico luego que baje al despacho. I shall look 
over the paper as soon as I go down to the sitting room. 

Iremos a visitarle cuando yd. quiera. We shall go and visit 
him when you wish. 

Quise lie gar a casa antes que lloviera. I wanted to get home 
before it rained. 

Remark. Seme of these conjunctions are followed by the indicative 
when the clause they introduce states a fact, or states what took place. 

Nunca estoy amable cuando estoy enfermo. I am never pleasant when 
I am sick/ 

Mi padre me castig6 luego que entr6^ My father punished me as soon 
as he came in. 

b. An adverb clause may be introduced by a conjunctive ex- 
pression meaning "however," "whenever," etc. Such are : 

dondequiera que, wherever. cuandoquiera que, whenever. 

comoquiera que, however. quienquiera que, whoever. 

cualquiera cosa que, whatever. cualquiera (cualesquiera) que, 

por mas* que, however much. whichever. 

Cualquiera cosa que Vd. diga, eso no me parece bien What- 
ever you may say, that doesn't seem right to me. 

Dondequiera que vayamos, veremos lo mismo. Wherever we 
go, we shall see the same thing. 

Por mas que trabaje no puede aprender la leccion. However 
much he may work, he cannot learn the lesson. 

134. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses. The subjunc- 
tive is used in an adjective clause (i. e., a clause that is in- 
troduced by a relative and modifies a noun or pronoun of 
the main clause) which qualifies an indefinite expression. 

Busco una casa donde pueda pasar el invierno. I am looking 
for a house where I can pass the winter. 

Mdndeme yd. cualquiera libra que no haya leido. Send me 
any book which I have not read. 

No lea yd. ningiin libra que no sea bueno. Don't read any 
book that is not good. 

No conosco a nadie que le ensene & yd. espanol. I don't know 
anybody who will teach you Spanish. 

* The second part of this expression may be an adverb, an adjective, 
or a noun with its modifier. 

por grande que sea, however big it may be. 

por poco dinero que tenga estc hombre, however little money this man 
may have. 


135. Indefinite Negative Words. The indefinite neg- 
ative words ninguno, "no," "none," "nobody," "no one," 
nadie, "nobody," "no one," and nada and ninguna cosa, 
"nothing," are found most commonly in connection with a 
negative verb. They are then often translated positively 
"any," "anyone," etc. They are also translated positively 
when they occur in an interrogative sentence which requires 
a negative answer. 

No me quitre nadie. Nobody loves me. 

No tengo nada (ninguna cosa) en la mono. I have nothing 
in my hand. 

No lengo ningtin libra frances. I haven't any French book. 
No digo nada a nadie. I am not saying anything to anybody. 

a. They are translated negatively when they stand first in a 
sentence or clause, and when they stand alone. 

Ninguno de mis amigos es frances. No one of my friends is 

Nadie me quiere. Nobody loves me. 

jQue desea Vd.f Nada. What do you want? Nothing. 

136. Infinitive after Expressions of Quantity. Cer- 
tain expressions of quantity may be followed by que and 
an infinitive. 

nada que comer, nothing to eat. 

algo bueno que dccir, something good to say. 

mucho que hacer, much to do. 

poco que comprar, little to buy. 

bastante que escribir, considerable to write. 

137. The Weather. Similar to the use of tener with 

a noun of condition to express physical or mental state 
(See 86), is the impersonal use of hacer with a noun to 
describe the weather. 

Hace frio. It is cold. Hace color. It is warm. 

Hacia viento. It was windy. Hace sol. It is sunny. 

jQue tiempo hace? What kind Hace buen tiempo. It is good 

of weather is it? weather. 

Hace un tiempo ma/0. It is bad Hace mucho* frio. It is very 

weather. cold. 

* Nouns used as above take an adjective modifier, while in the equiva- 
lent English expressions an adverb is used. 



absolutamente, adv., absolutely. frio, cold. 

acera, sidewalk. tener frio, to be cold. 

color, m., heat. important^, important. 

tcner calor, to be warm. notar, to notice, note. 

catdlogo, catalogue. pensar, to think, intend (R-ch. 
cielo, sky, heaven. I). 

claro, clear, bright, light. pintura, painting. 

clima, m., climate. Prado, a famous picture-gallery 

darse prisa, to hurry. sierra, saw, mountain-range. 

dentro de, prep., inside of, with- sol, m., sun. 

in, in. al sol, in the sun. 

diferencia, difference. sombra, shadow, shade 
Esta bien! All right! a la sombra, in the shade. 

extranjero, foreigner (pron. es- ilempo, weather. 

tranjero). vicnlo, wind. 


a. Muchos extranjeros piensan que el clima de Madrid es muy 
malo. En verdad, el clima de Madrid es magnifico. Es cierto que 
en el verano hace mucho calor a mediodia, y que pocas personas 
se ven en las calles a esta hora ; pero dondequiera que vayamos 
encontraremos lo mismo ; mientras que un cielo tan claro y tan 
azul, no lo vemos en ningun pais. En el invierno hace mucho 
frio a la sombra, pero hace bastante calor al sol. Se nota bien la 
diferencia pasando de una acera a otra. For la noche hace frio 
a causa de los vientos frios que bajan de la sierra. 

b. iTiene Vd. mucho que hacer esta manana? 
Absolutamente nada. Acabo de aprender todas mis lecciones 

para esta tarde, y puedo hacer cualquiera cosa que a Vd. le guste. 

iQuiere Vd. que visitemos al Prado J 

Esta bien. Dentro de algunos minutos estare listo. 

Dese Vd. prisa para que nos volvamos antes que haga demas- 
iado calor. 

i Conoce Vd. alguna "tienda donde pueda comprar un catalogo 
de las pinturas del Prado? 

Si ; pero Vd. no necesita ningun catalogo. No hay nadie que 
conozca mejor que yo las pinturas mas importantes, y no hay nada 
que me de tanto gusto como ensenarselas a Vd. 

c. Dos jovenes estaban hablando en el cuarto de uno de ellos. 
Este dijo que acababa de aprender sus lecciones para el dia siguiente, 
y que podia hacer cualquiera cosa que a su amigo le gustara. Se 
dieron prisa para visitar al Prado antes que hiciese demasiado 
calor. El joven dijo que desearia entrar en alguna tienda donde 
pudiese comprar un catalogo. Su amigo le dijo entonces que no 


habia (see 146, note}, nadie que conociese mejor que el las pinturas 
del Prado, y que por consiguiente no era precise comprar un cata- 

d. iQue clima tiene Madrid? 

iQue tiempo hace hoy 

,; Hace f rio al sol 

I Por que hace frio por la noche en Madrid ? 

Por mas que viajemos, <;d6nde veremos un cielo como este? 

<?No conoce Vd. a ningi'm espanol? 

,;Tienen algo que hacer los jovenes de esta leccion? 

iQue piensan hacer? 

i Por que se dan tanta prisa ? 

iEn que clase de tienda quiere entrar uno de ellos? 

iEn que clase de tienda queria entrar uno de ellos? 

i Por que no necesita ningun catalogo? 

iNo conoce Vd. ninguna tienda donde pueda comprar un som- 

i Quiere Vd. hacerme el favor de ensenarme las pinturas? 

I Tiene Vd. frio? i Tiene Vd. calor? 


ARTICLE (a) in time expressions (132) 

(b) with seasons (131) 

NOUNS Months, Days and Seasons (131) 
PRONOUNS Indefinite, negative (135) 
VERB (a) Regular (i) imperfect subjunctives, forms (125) 

(2) use (126, 128) 

(3) subjunctive -in main clauses (121) 

(4) as imperative (122) 

(5) in adverb clauses (133) 

(6) in adjective clauses (134) 

(7) infinitive with expressions of quantity 1136) 

(b) Irregular (i) present subjunctive of ser, estar, tener, hacer, 
decir, haber (531-534, 542, 543) 

(2) irregular imperfect subjunctives of any verb (127) 

(3) inceptive verbs, conocer (513) 

(4) salir, venir (541 and 547) 
CONJUNCTIONS used with subjunctive (133) 
MISCELLANEOUS Idiomatic, I should like (129) 

weather (137) 


Turn into Spanish. I. The Spring months are April. May and 
June. 2. Last year, in the Autumn, I did not feel at all well. 
3. What phrase do we use when we wish to say "good-bye" to a 
friend? 4. How many times have you gone to see the paintings 


of the Prado? 5. Nothing gives me greater pleasure than to go to 
walk with a friend. 6. The teacher rarely finds mistakes in John's 
exercises. 7. It is always warm at noon in the Puerta del Sol. 
8. Please take a catalogue. 9. Open the windows so that the 
sun may come in. 10. The last time that I went to Spain, I 
arrived the thirteenth of October. II. The Spaniards always sleep 
with the windows closed, even if it is warm. 12. On arriv- 
ing in Madrid a foreigner notices the difference in the climate. 
13. Whatever they may say, it is not true that my son is not 
strong. 14. God be with you. 15. I shall not go to Paris next 
month unless you are willing to go with me. 16. I should like 
to find some book which would teach me to speak Spanish. 
17. Haven't you anything to do on Thursday? 18. It was fine 
weather last week. 19. If I were in Madrid, I should go to the 
theatre every night. 20. They used to come to my house twice a 
month (per month). 21. The principal theatres of the capital 
are closed. 22. Allow me, Sir, to introduce myself to you. 23. How 
does one greet an acquaintance in the street? 24. If we hurry 
we shall arrive before they open the doors. 25. Is there nobody 
(Isn't there anybody) here who knows you? 26. He said there 
was nobody there who knew him. 27. Excuse me sir. I do not 
understand you very well. Have the kindness to speak more slowly. 
28. However cold it may be in the shade (For mas frio que haga) 
it is warm in the sun. 29. Day before yesterday was Sunday. 
Consequently, yesterday was Monday, to-day is Tuesday and to- 
morrow will be Wednesday. 30. Come here. I have something 
important to tell you. 31. His mother told him to go out of the 
kitchen and to sit in a chair in the library until she came. 32. We 
regret that you are not satisfied. 33. It seems to me that it is 
very windy. 34. Remember me to John and the rest. 35. Good 
night ! Come and see me often. 


138. The simple forms of the regular verb not yet 
learned are the Future Subjunctive and the Imperative. 
These are comparatively little used in ordinary conversation, 
and are included at this point for the sake of completeness, 
and because the student will meet them in his reading. 


139. Future Subjunctive. 



-are -iere 

-ares -ieres 

-are -iere 

-aremos -ieremos 

areis -iereis 

-aren -ieren 

Note. The stress is in all forms on the first syllable of the ending. 
Endings are added to the stem of the infinitive. 

140. Use of Future Subjunctive. The future sub- 
junctive is found only in adverb or adjective clauses that 
express future contingency, and the present subjunctive 
may always be used in its place except in a true future con- 
dition introduced by si, "if." 

Ire manana aunque estuviere (este) enfermo. I shall go to- 
morrow even if I am sick. 

Tome yd. lo que Ic dieren (den). Take what they may give 

Ire si tuviere el dinero. I shall go if I have the money. 

141. Irregular Future Subjunctives. The future 
subjunctive of any irregular verb may be found by substi- 
tuting -re for the final -ron of the past definite, third per- 
son plural. dijer0n> dijere 

sin tier on, sin t iere 

142. Imperative Mode. The imperative mode has 
but t\Vo forms, the second person singular, and the second 
person plural. The endings are added to the stem of the 
i-nfinitive. ENDINGS. 


-a -e -e 

-ad -ed -id 

Adding these endings to stems of regular verbs, we get : 

trabaja responde escribe 

trabajad responded escribid 

Note. The stress is on the stem in the singular, and on the ending 
in the plural. The second plural of the third conjugation is one of the four 
forms in which this conjugation differs in ending from the second conjuga- 
tion. What are the other three? 


143. Orthographical Changing Verbs. Learn 505- 
508 and 522 b, and apply the principles learned to coger, 
cruzar, dirigir and seguir of this lesson. 

144. Irregular verb saber, "to know." Learn 540. 
Saber means "to know" by mental process, to possess as 
knowledge. It may also mean "to know about," and with 
a dependent infinitive "to know how." 

Juan no sabe la lection. John does not know the lesson. 

Se que Juan no estudia bastante. I know that John doesn't 
study enough. 

Mi niadre lo supo ayer. Mother learned about it yesterday. 

No se hablar espanol. I don't know how to speak Spanish. 

a. Conocer, contrasted with saber, means "to know" by the 
senses, "to be acquainted with," "to make the acquaintance of," and 
"to recognise." 

jNo conoce Vd. a Juan Suarez? Don't you know John Suarez? 

Si; le conoci el ano fasado en Paris. Yes, I made his ac- 
quaintance last year in Paris. 

La conocimos en seguida. We recognized her at once. 

Conozco el espanol. I know Spanish. 

145. Cardinal Points. The cardinal points are el 
Norte, "North," el Sur, "South," el Este, "East," el Oeste, 
"West." They must be accompanied by the masculine defi- 
nite article. 

146. Distance. Distance is idiomatically expressed by 
the third person singular of haber, impersonally used.* 

^Cuanlo hay de aqui a la escuelaf How far is it from here 
to the school? 

No hay tnucho, or No hay mucha distancia. It is not far. 

147. Cualquiera, plural cualesquiera, "any whatever," 
is both pronoun and adjective. Used as an adjective be- 
fore its noun it may drop the final a. 

Cualquier (a) cafe. Any Cafe. 
Cualesquicr (a) libros. Any books at all. 
Cualquiera de los libros. Any one of the books. 

* Any third person singular of haber may be used impersonally, but no 
tense except the present has a special impersonal form. 


a. It may be used after a singular noun preceded by the indefi- 
nite article. 

Un hombre cualqniera podria hacerlo. Any man might do it. 

b. It is not used in negative sentences. 

No tengo libros, or No tengo ningunos libros. I have no books. 

148. Agradecer, "to thank," takes as direct object that 
for which thanks are given, and as indirect object the per- 
son to whom thanks are given. Conjugated like conocer 
(see 513). 

Le agradezco a Vd. mucho su amabilidad. Thank you very much 
for your kindness. 

cache, m., carriage, cab. ir bien para, to be on the right 

en coche, in a cab. . road to. 

cochero, coachman, cabman. izqwerap, left. 

eager, to catch. "&"**' " the left ' tO 

crusar, to cross. ee 

derecho right. al ' otro ] ado> on the other side 

a la derecha, on the right, to h menos> or ^ [ men os, adv., 

the right. at i eas t. 

ide que modo? how? (manner). llegada, arrival. 

direct o, straight. lie gar a, to get to, reach. 

dirigirse 6, to address, to go par aqui, this way (lit. through 

towards. here). 

distancia, distance. por donde? what way, how (lit. 

esquina, corner (of a street). through where?) 

estacion, f., station, season. P* - P omt > P lace - 

ferrocarril, m., railroad. . * a a > de P arture - 

,. ,. salir, to leave. 

guardia, m policeman. ; tQ fo]1 continue> 

guia, f., guide. on> keep on (R . ch- m)- 

guia de ferrocarriles, railroad seguro, safe, sure. 

guide, time-table. tranvia, m., street-car. 
infinite, adv., infinitely, very en tranvia, in a car. 

much. tren, m., train. 


a. Caballero, ime haria Vd. el favor de decirme por donde se 
va a la estacion del Este? (or de dirigirme a la estacion?) 

Siento mucho no poder hacerlo. Me parece que esta calle va 
directa a la estacion, pero no estoy seguro. Soy tambien extranjero 
y no conozco muy bien la ciudad. Preguntelo Vd. a aquel cochero. 

Cochero, ime hace Vd. el favor de indicarme si voy bien para 
la estacion del Este (or, de decirme donde esta la estacion? or de 
decirme si se va por aqui a la estacion?) 


Si senor. Siga Vd. esta calle hasta la primera calle que la 
cruce. Vuclva Vd. a la derecha, y siga hasta la estacion. 

iCuanto hay de aqui? iCuanto tiempo necesito (se necesita) 
para ir (llegar) alia? 

Hay bastante distancia. Necesita Vd. media hora lo menos; 
pero si Vd. quiere subir en mi coche, le llevare alia dentro de 
algunos minutos. 

No tengo prisa y prefiero ir a pie. Le agradezco a Vd. infinite 
su amabilidad. 

No hay de que. 

b. i Sabe Vd. si el tren para Paris sale de la estacion del 
Norte ? 

No senor. Sale de la estacion del Este, que esta al otro lado 
de la ciudad. 

i Sabe Vd. la hdra de la salida del tren de la noche ? 

No senor; pero en cualquier (a) cafe se puede ver una Guia de 
Ferrocarriles. En ella hallara Vd. la hora de la sulida y de la llegada 
de cualquier (a) tren. 

c. Cuando una persona que no conoce bien la ciudad desea 
llegar a (dirigirse a) tin punto cualquiera, ia quien se dirige? 

No sabiendo por donde ir a un punto cualquiera, ,;a quien se 
dirigiria Vd. ? 

iDe que modo iria Vd.? iTomaria Vd. un coche? 

i Cuantas estaciones hay en esta ciudad ? i Cuales son ? 

i Se puede llegar por esta calle a la estacion ? 

i No hay tranvia que pase delante de la puerta? 

,; Cuantas calles cruzamos antes de llegar alia? 

Al llegar a la esquina de la calle de Sevilla inos volvemos a 
la derecha? 

i Se puede ir alia a pie, 6 es precise ir en coche? 

i No hay ningun libro que de la hora de la llegada de los 
trenes que vienen de Paris? 

,; Se puede coger el tranvia aqui ? 

i Se puede tomar el tranvia cerca de aqui? 

i Cuales son las cuatro estaciones del ano? 

I No hay nadie en esta clase que sepa responder en espafiol ? 

I Cuantos ferrocarriles pasan por esta ciudad? 

,; Como se llama el libro en que buscamos la hora de la salida 
de los trenes? 

Cuando deseamos consultar la guia ,; donde la consultamos? 

LESSON xxvi 93 


149. Subjunctive in Object Clauses. The subjunc- 
tive is used in a clause that stands as object of a verb that 
expresses doubt, disbelief or uncertainty, or which ques- 
tions the statement contained in the object clause. 

Dudo que mi padre llegue esta noche. I doubt whether my 
father will arrive to-night. 

jCree Vd. que este hombre sea tan sabio como se piensaf Do 
you think this man is as learned as is believed? 

No creo que lo sea. I do not think he is. 

a. Verbs that express belief may be followed by the indicative, 
or if the subject is the same for the main and the dependent verb, 
by the infinitive. 

Crco que es tnuy sabio. I think that he is very learned. 

Crce scr sabio pero no lo es. He thinks he is learned but he is 

150. Verbs meaning "to ask" and "to buy" take as 
direct object the thing asked or bought, and as indirect ob- 
ject the person of whom the thing is asked or bought. 

jA quicn le compro Vd. la casaf Of whom did you buy the 

Se la compre al Sr. Fernandez. I bought it of Mr. Fernandez. 

La nina le pldlo un favor a stt amigo. The girl asked a favor of 
her friend. 

Me pidio un favor. She asked me a favor. 

Le voy a prcguntar algo a Juan. I am going to ask John some- 

Le siiplico a Vd. que no lo haga. I beg you not to do it. 

151. Uno, -a, -os, -as. Uno may be used as an in- 
definite pronoun or adjective. In the singular it may be 
used impersonally. The plural may be used, like algunos, 
to mean "some few," while before a numeral it expresses 
an approximate number. 

/No pucde uno entrar? May one not come in? 

Tengo unos libros muy interesantes. I have a few interesting 

El billete costard unas siete pesetas. The ticket will cost some 
seven pesetas. 


152. Use of Definite Article. The definite article is 
used before a singular noun used in a general sense to rep- 
resent a class, or before a plural noun used inclusively for 
the whole class. 

El hombre tiene que morir. Man must die. 
Me gustan las flores. I like flowers. 

o. Similarly, the article is required before an abstract noun 
used in a general way. 

La vida es corta. Life is short. 

b. Similarly, the masculine definite article is found before an 
infinitive used in a general way as the name of an act, particularly 
when subject or predicate. The infinitive is then equivalent to the 
English verbal noun in -ing. 

El vivir es barato en Espafia. Living is cheap in Spain. 

153. Demonstratives as correlatives. Used as cor- 
relatives, aquel (aquella, etc.) means "the former" and 
este (esta, etc.) means "the latter." 

Tengo dos libros en espanol; un libro de lectura y un libra de 
gramatica; este es dificil, pero aquel es fdcil. 

154. Definite Article used for Personal and Demon- 
strative Pronoun. A personal pronoun or a demonstrative 
pronoun is seldom found before de or relative que. In 
their place the definite article is used (el de, la de, los de, 
las de, and el que, la que, los que, las que). When so 
used the article may contract in the regular way with a 
or de. 

La del sombrero azul. She of the blue hat. 

Los de Madrid y los de Paris. Those of Madrid and those of 

El muchacho que estudia y los que no estudian. The boy who 
studies and those who do not study. 

La que estudia mucho aprende mucho. She who studies hard 
learns a great deal. 

Los que Vd. me did ayer. Those you gave me yesterday. 

Mi casa y la de mi amigo. My house and that of my friend. 

Remark. Similar to this tise of the article is its substitution for the 
possessive pronoun of the third person (see 53). 
Mi casa y )a de el. My house and his. 

155. Adverbs in -mente. The largest class of adverbs 
consists of those ending in -mente. These may be formed 

LESSON xxvi 95 

at will from adjectives, by adding -mente to the feminine 

complete, complctamente; complete, completely. 
fuerte, fuertetnente ; strong, strongly. 
verdadero, verdaderamente; true, truly. 

a. If the adjective has a written accent, it must be retained 
in the derived adverb. 

fdcil, fdcilmente; easy, easily. 


acerca de, prep., concerning. kilogramo, kilogram. 

aprovecharse de, to avail oneself libre, free. 

of. maleta, traveling-bag. 

billete, m., ticket. manta de viaje, steamer-rug. 

caro, dear, expensive. mayor parte (de), greater part, 
calentado, heated. majority, most (of). 

cache, car (of a passenger medianie, prep., by means of, 

train). for. 

comfortable, comfortable. mozo, porter. 

comodidad, f., convenience, com- natural, m. or f., native. 

fort. pedir, to request, ask (R-ch. 
contestar, to answer. III). 

corrcsponder, to correspond. peseta, Spanish monetary unit, 
co star, to cost (R-ch. I). about 2oc. 

crecr, to believe, think (see 511). peso, weight. 

dudar, to doubt. placer, m., pleasure. 

en cuanto a, prep., as for. par, prep., by. 

entre, prep., among, between. precio, price. 

equipaje, m., baggage. segun, conj., according as. 

hotel, m., hotel. segundo, second. 

ignal, equal. transportar, to transport, carry. 

inform*, m., information (gen- vida, life. 

erally used in plural). viaje, m., trip, voyage, journey. 


a. El afio que viene (proximo) pienso ir a Espana, y creo que 
Vd. puede darme los informes que necesito acerca de mi viaje. 

Si en algo puedo servirle, seria un verdadero placer para mi el 

Es Vd. muy arnable y voy a aprovecharme de su amabilidad. 
Primero, quisiera saber si es mas barato el viajar en Espana que 

No creo que (Dudo que) haya mucha diferencia. El ir en 

* Adverbs so formed will not be included from now in the vocabularies. 
The parent adjective, if unfamiliar, will be given instead. 


coche de un punto a otro es mas barato, porque mediante una peseta 
y media le llevan a uno a cualquiera parte de la ciudad. El vivir 
(La vida) en los mejores hoteles cuesta igualmente caro. mientras 
que el viajar por tren es mas caro 6 mas barato segun se tomen 
(compren) billetes de primera, de segunda 6 de tercera clase. 

iQue diferencia hay (Cual es la diferencia) entre estas tres 
clases de billetes? 

La diferencia del precio corresponde a la diferencia de la como- 
didad de los coches. Los de primera son tan buenos como los de 
cualquier pals, y en ellos viajan muchos extranjeros. En cuanto 
a los de tercera y de segunda, aquellos son bastante malos y estos 
muy comfortables, pero no estan calentados en el invierno. En los 
coches de tercera y en los de segunda viajan la mayor parte de los 
naturales, los extranjeros que viajan con poco dinero, y los que 
desean ver la verdadera vida espaiiola. 

i Cuanto peso de equipaje se transporta libre? 

Treinta kilogramos solamente. Pero es muy posible, viajando 
solo, pasar un par de meses en Espana sin mas equipaje que dos 
maletas y una manta de viaje. Estas cosas las puedc uno llevar 
consigo en el coche. 

b. iPuede Vd. dirigirme al despacho de billetes? 
Alii esta, al otro lado de la estacion. 

Mozo, lleve Vd. estas cosas al despacho de equipajes. 
Deme Vd. un billete de tercera clase para Sevilla (or, more 
simply, Sevilla, tercera). 

iA que hora sale el tren? 

c. iDonde piensa ir este caballero el ano que viene? 
I A quien le pide los informes que necesita? 
iAcerca de que necesita informes? 

iQue le contesta su amigo cuando le pide informes? 

iQue desea saber primero? 

iSe lo puede decir su amigo? 

iComo es que su amigo sabe tanto acerca de la vida espafiola? 

iCree Vd. que sea mas barato el vivir en Espana que aqui? 

i Cuanto cuesta el ir en coche de una estacion a otra? 

iEs cara la vida en los mejores hoteles de Madrid? 

iCuantas clases de coches tienen los trenes espanoles? 

iA que corresponde la diferencia del precio de los billetes? 

i Son mas comfortables los coches de segunda 6 los de tercera? 

iEn cuales de los coches viajan los naturales? 

i Cuanto equipaje se necesita para viajar solo en Espana? 

LESSON xxvn 97 


156. Cardinal Numerals. Review 39 and 87. 

cuarenta 40 quinientos, -as 500 

cincuenta SO seiscientos -as 600 

sesenta 60 setecientos, -as 700 

setenta 70 ochocientos, -as 800 

ochenta 80 novecientos, -as 900 

novcnta go mil 1,000 

ciento, cien 100 dos mil : 2,000 

doscientos, -as 200 cien mil 100,000 

trescientos, -as 300 un millon 1,000,000 

cuatrocientos, -as 400 dos millones 2,000,000 

a. Ciento becomes cien when it stands before a descriptive ad- 
jective, a noun or mil. 

Cien hombres, a hundred men. 

b. Mil is an adjective and millon is a noun. 

c. Of the hundreds, 500, 700 and 900 are irregularly formed. 

d. The following compound numbers will serve as types. 

ciento (y) nueve logcuatrocicntos cuarenta y 

ciento (y) veinte 120 siete 447 

ciento veinte y uno 121 mil novecientos (y) nueve 1909 

ciento setenta y cuatro mil, seiscientos noventa y ocho 174,698 

e. The cardinals are often used instead of the ordinals, to 
give the number of a page, volume, century, or day of the month, 
excepting the first, which is el primero. The numeral so used fol- 
lows the noun. 

La leccion quince de la gramdtica. The fifteenth lesson (lesson 
fifteen) of the grammar. 

El dia cinco de mar so. The 5th day of March. 

157. Relative Pronouns. The most commonly used 
of the relatives is que, which is invariable. It relates to 
persons or things, and is subject or object of a verb, and 
when relating to things may be the object of the preposi- 
tions a, de, en, or con. 

Un libra que me intcresa. A book which interests me. 

El hombre que me visito. The man who visited me. 

La casa que he comprado. The house which I have bought. 


Las senoras quc visite ayer. The ladies whom I visited yes- 

La escuela de que le liable. The school about which I spoke 
to you.* 

158. Quien, quienes. The relatives quien, quienes, 
"who," relate to persons only, and are used instead of que 
as follows: 

a. With a to form the objective case. 

Un hombre a quien conozco. A man whom I know. 

b. In general after monosyllabic prepositions. 

La senora con quien estaba hablando. The lady with whom I 
was talking. 

c. To take the place of y and a pronoun, in introducing a 
clause of equal value with the preceding one. 

Hoy cncontre a Juan, quien (y el} me dijo que no estd bueno. 
To-day I met John, who (and he) told me he is not well. 

d. In literary texts and proverbs chiefly, to include the ante- 

Quien da luego da dos veces. He who gives promptly, gives 

159. El que (la que, los que, las que) and el cual 
(la cual, los cuales, las cuales). These relatives may refer 
to persons or things, and because of their complete inflec- 
tion are chiefly valuable as substitutes for que and quien 
to avoid possible ambiguity in cases where the relative is 
separated from its antecedent. 

Estudio la gram&tica de Salvd, la cual (la que} es muy buena. 
I am studying Salva's grammar, which is a very good one. 

a. They are also used for euphony after the longer preposi- 
tions and after a comma. 

El talon mediants cl cual (el que) recogi el equipaje. The 
check by means of which I claimed the baggage. 

Me gusta viajar en los Irenes americanos, los cuales son muy 
comfortables. I like to travel in the American trains, which are 
very comfortable. 

* Such a sentence as "The school I spoke to you about" would he 
impossible in Spanish, because (i) the relative is never omitted, and (2) the 
preposition which governs a relative must piecede it. 

LESSON xxvn 99 

160. Lo que and lo cual. These are the neuter rela- 
tives, and they relate to a whole clause. 

Maria estd muy enferma, lo que (lo cual) siento muchisimo. 
Mary is very sick, (a matter) which I am very sorry for. 

161. Causative Construction. The verb hacer is 
used, like the English "to make," "to have," "to get," with 
causative force. It is followed by the infinitive, or by que 
and a subjunctive object clause. 

Haga yd. entrar al nino. Make the child come in. 

Juan se hizo llamar a las siete. John had himself called at 

Juan hizo que le llamasen a las siete. John had them call him 
at seven. 

Voy a hacer pesar el equipaje. I am going to have the baggage 

Hare que Juan le llame temprano. I shall have John call him 

a. Mandar, "to order," is similarly used. 
He mandado hacer un traje. I have ordered a suit made. 
He mandado que me hagan un traje. I have ordered them to 
make me a suit. 

162. Object Pronouns used indefinitely. The ob- 
ject pronouns le, la, los, las, are often used as indefinite 
pronouns with the meaning of "some," "any," "one," to 
avoid repetition of the noun. 

jNo hay biblioteca en esta c'asaf Si, la hay. Is there no li- 
brary in this house? Yes there is one. 

'Quisiera comprar un baul si Vd. los tiene fuertes. I should 
like to buy a trunk if you have any strong ones. 

163. Idiomatic. Haber. Hay, and the other third 
persons singular of the various tenses of haber may be used 
with que and an infinitive, to express impersonal obliga- 

Hay que cstar en casa a las diez. It is necessary to be at home 
at ten o'clock. 

Habia que estudiar mucho. One had to study hard. 

a. Haber with de and an infinitive expresses a mild sort of 
obligation or expectation. 


He de ir con el. I am (expect) to go with him. 

iQus hemos de hacer ahoraf What are we to do now? 

Remark. Contrast with the above the personal expression of obliga- 
ener que. 
go que estar alii temprano. I must be there early. 

tion by tenet que. 

164. Is it not? The expressions iNo es verdad? 
iVerdad? alone, or iNo? alone are u^ed when seeking con- 
firmation of a statement. The English translation depends 
upon the statement. 

Hace buen tiempo. iVerdad? It is fine weather, isn't it? 

Usted es espanol, iVerdad? You are a Spaniard, are you not? 

Vd. acaba de llegar, jNo? You just came, didn't you? 


aduana, custom-house. gracia, grace. 

ancho, wide, broad. Inglatcrra, England. 

aqui tiene Vd., here is. Italia, Italy. 

ayudar, to help. iialiano, Italian. 

banco, bank. madrileno, of Madrid. 

billete de banco, bank-note. moneda, money, coin. 

haul, m., trunk. paquete, m., package. 
bulto, piece (of baggage, etc.). parar, to stop. 

caja, box. pagar, to pay (see 507). 

cambiar, to change. pesar, to weigh. 

cambiar de tren, to change registrar, to examine. 

cars. sacar, to remove, take out. (See 

companero, companion. 507.) 

conocimiento, knowledge. sobre, prep., above. 
fxceso, excess (pron., esceso). sobre todo, adv.. particularly, 

facturar, to check. especially. 

Francia, France. tarjcta, card. 

fronlera, frontier. talon, m., check, stub. 

fuera de, prep., aside from, out- vuelia, return, change. 

side of. 


a. Llame Vd. un mozo que lleve sus cosas al despacho de 
equipajes, mientras que Vd. esta comprando el billete en el despacho 
de billetes. Despues vaya Vd. con el billete para hacer facturar el 
haul. Es posible que tenga Vd. que pagar exceso. Si le hay, pague 
Vd. lo que debe, y le daran a Vd. un talon, mediante el cual (el 
que) puede sacar el equipaje a su llegada a Sevilla. 

b. iMe hace Vd. el favor de facturar este baul y esta caja? 
i No tiene Vd. mas bultos que estos dos? Esos paquetes. .jquiere 
Vd. que los facture tambien? 


No; los voy a Iievar conmigo en el tren. iHay exceso? 

Bastante. Estos dos bultos pesan ciento seis kilogramos. 

iCuanto hay que pagar? 

Cuarenta y dos pesetas. 

i Puede Vd. cambiarme este billete de banco de cien pesetas ? 

Aqui tiene Vd. la vuelta y el talon. 

Cincuenta y ocho pesetas. Esta bien. 

c. iHa estado Vd. muchas veces en Espana? 

Esta es la segunda vez ; pero fuera de Espana he viajado mucho 
en Europa, sobre todo en Italia e Inglaterra.* 

iComo es que Vd. habla tan bien el espanol? 

He tenido muy buenos maestros, y mi conocimiento del italiano, 
el cual hablo perfectamente, me ha ayudado a aprender espanol. 

I De que pais es Vd. ? 

Soy Americano del Norte. Y Vd. es espanol, .jverdad? 

Espanol y madrileiio. Permitame que me presente a Vd. Aqui 
tiene mi tarjeta. Y icual es su gracia de Vd. ? (Polite way of 
asking a stranger's name.) 

Me llamo John Brown, para servir a Vd. Siento no tener tar- 
jetas. Tengo mucho gusto en conocerle y en tenerle por companero 
de viaje. <;Sabe Vd. a que hora llegaremos a la frontera, y si hay 
que cambiar de tren? 

Llegaremos a la una, y tenemos que cambiar de tren porque 
los trenes espanoles no pueden pasar la frontera, siendo mas anchos 
los ferrocarriles espanoles que los franceses. Tambien es precise 
que bajemos para que los empleados de la aduana puedan registrar 
el equipaje. 

iCuanto tiempo paramos alii? 

Bastante tiempo para comer y para cambiar nuestra moneda 
espanola por francesa. 

d. jDonde se facturan los equipajes? 

En los ferrocarriles espanoles, ipor que es preciso muchas veces 
pagar exceso? 

iCon que (Mediante que) sacamos nuestro equipaje al ter- 
minar el viaje? 

Si un billete nos cuesta dieciocho pesetas, icual es la vuelta de 
un billete de banco de cincuenta pesetas? 

I Cuales son las lenguas que nos ayudan a aprender espanol ? 

iComo se llaman los naturales de America del Norte? ide 

iComo se llaman las personas con quienes (las cuales) via- 

* Y becomes e before a word beginning with i or hi, unless these form 
part of the diphthong ie (hie). 


i Que frase empleamos para prcguntar cortesmente a un hombre 
como se llama? 

iPor que no pueden los trenes franceses pasar la frontera de 
Espana ? 

iPor que hay que bajar del tren en la frontera? 

iQue capitulo estudiamos? 

<iHay muchachas en la clase? 



ARTICLE definite, (a) used with (i) cardinal points (145) 

(2) nouns used in general sense (153) 

(3) abstract nouns (1523) 

(4) infinitives used as nouns (152 b) 
(b) used for personal or demonstrative pronouns (154) 

ADJECTIVES numeral, cardinal (156) 

used for ordinals (1560) 
PRONOUNS (a) personal, object forms used indefinitely (162) 

(b) demonstratives as correlatives (153) 

(c) relative, que (157)1 quien (158), el que, el cual (159) 

lo que, lo cual (160) 

(d) indefinite, cualquiera (147), uno (151) 
VERBS Regular (a) future subjunctive (139) 

(b) imperative mode (142) 
Irregular (a) future subjunctive (141) 

(b) orthographical changing (505-508, 522 b) 

(c) saber (540) 

Use (a) future subjunctive (140) 

(b) saber and conocer contrasted (144) 

(c) subjunctive with verbs of doubting (149) 

(d) ordering U6i) 

(e) idiomatic uses of haber (146, 163) 

(f) verbs of asking, etc. (150) 

(g) agradecer (148) 
ADVERBS in -mente (155) 
MISCELLANEOUS Cardinal points (145) 

Distance (146) 
Is it not? (164) 


Turn into Spanish, i. What happened in 1492? 2. We travel 
on the railroad by means of a ticket which we buy in the ticket 
office. 3. It is necessary to buy a ticket before having the baggage 
checked, is it not? 4. He did not think that I weighed as much 
as he. 5. Unfortunately, not knowing how to cook, I was not able 
to avail myself of the kitchen. 6. Wherever we may travel, we 


shall find pleasant people. 7. The Northern Station is near by. 
8. The idea ! I doubt whether (que) it is possible. 9. How far 
is it from here to that mountain-range yonder? The distance is 
not great. 10. Are there beautiful views in North America? Yes, 
there are. u. The excess which we pay corresponds to the weight 
of the trunk. 12. In the Bank of Spain there are millions of 
pesetas in bank-notes and in coin. 13. The best hotels of England 
are very comfortable and equal to those of any country in Europe. 
14. My traveling companion and I left New York on Friday, the 
30th day of July, and reached Italy the following Friday. 15. When 
one has absolutely no knowledge of the language of the country 
where one is traveling, it is difficult to ask the natives for infor- 
mation. 16. As for my voyage, and my life after my arrival there, 
they were without novelty. 17. What I don't like is the changing 
cars and the examining of the baggage at the frontier. 18. This 
is the broadest street in the city; consequently it is called Broad 
Street. 19. Not knowing what way to go, I addressed a cabman, 
who told me to keep on through this street as far as Broad Street. 

20. When you get to the corner of State Street, turn to the left. 

21. Let us catch this street-car. 22. In most cafes one may find 
a Railway Guide. 23. The employee of the customs opened the 
box, in which he found what he was looking for. 24. Which 
way? This way. 25. There are two doors, one on the right and 
the other on the left. The former opens into the kitchen, while 
the latter opens into the sitting-room. 26. Fifty trains at least 
leave this station every day. 27. We shall give our traveling-bags 
and packages to the porter, who will take them to the baggage- 
room. 28. Carriages, street-cars and trains serve to (para) carry 
people from one point to another. 29. You should order a new 
suit made at once. 


165. Clauses depending on Prepositions. Certain 
words whose meaning, both in English and Spanish, is com- 
pleted by a preposition, may retain this preposition in Span- 
ish even before a clause. Note the following: 

Estoy seguro de ello. I am sure of it. 

Estoy seguro de que vendrd. I am sure that he will come. 

Me alegro de ello. I am glad of it. 


Me alegro de que su madre este mejor de salud. I am glad your 
mother is better. 

Insistio en ello. He insisted on it. 

Insistid en que fuesemos. He insisted that we should go. 

166. Verbs with Subjunctive or Infinitive. Preferir, 
alegrarse de and insistir en, "to insist," are followed by an 
object clause with verb in the subjunctive if there is a 
change of subject, and by an infinitive if there is no change 
of subject. 

Prefiero ir. I prefer to go. 

Prefiero que Vd. vaya. I prefer that you should go (to have 
you go). 

Insisto en entrar. I insist on coming in. 

Insistir e en que entren. I shall insist on their coming in. 

Me alegro de verle. I am glad to see you. 

Me alegre de que estuviesemos alii. I was glad we were there. 

a. Aconsejar, "to advise," is followed by the subjunctive or 
the infinitive. 

Me aconsejo ir (que fuese) temprano. He advised me to go 

b. Dejar, permitir and prohibir are often found with the in- 
finitive, despite the general statement in 101 a. 

Dejeme Vd. ir. Let me go. 

167. Possessive Adjectives. In addition to the forms 
of the possessive adjectives already given, there is a series 
of longer forms, more rarely used. These long forms are 
merely the possessive pronouns without the article (mio, 
tuyo, suyo, nuestro, vuestro). They always follow their 
noun, and are used : 

a. In direct address: 
Amigo mio. My friend. 

b. When the noun modified is preceded by some indefinite 
word like un, cierto, algunos, m-uchos, etc. This is equivalent to 
saying that they are used where in English we would use the forms 
"of mine," "of his," etc. 

Un amigo nuestro. A friend of ours. 

Muchos conocidos suyos. Many acquaintances of his. 

168. Parecer and hacer falta. Parecer, "to seem," 
and hacer falta, "to make a lack," are idiomatically trans- 


iated "lo think" and "to need." When so used they require 
an indirect object. For parecer see 513. 

Me parece que no es fuerte. I think that he is not strong. 

jNo le parecen hermosas estas pinturasf Don't you think 
these paintings are beautiful ? 

iQue le parece! What do you think! 

jQue le hace faltaf What do you need? 

Me hace falta dincro. I need money. 

a. Parecer (like creer and pensar) may take the subjunctive 
when used interrogatively or negatively. 

iLe parece que vayamosf Do you think we should go? 
No me parece que sea fuerte. I don't think he is strong. 

169. Possessive Construction with Article and In- 
direct Object. Sometimes the definite article used alone in 
place of a possessive (see 89) would leave ambiguity as to 
the possessor. In such cases the article is accompanied by an 
indirect object to indicate the possessor. This indirect object 
may be a pronoun, a noun or a double object construction. 

Me puse el sombrero. I put on my hat. 

El empleado me registro el equipaje. The employee examined 
my baggage. 

Le puse el sombrero al nino. I put on the child's hat for him. 

El medico le tomo el pulso al maestro. The doctor felt the 
teacher's pulse. 

170. Poner, "to put," "place," "set," "put on." See 


a. Poner used reflexively may mean "to become," "to get." 
La niita se puso cnferma. The child became (got) sick. 

171. Tal, tales, "such," "such a." This adjective-pro- 
noun is never followed by the indefinite article. Preceded 
by the indefinite article it means "a certain." 

Me lo dijo un tal Suarez. A certain Suarez told me so. 
No creo tal cosa. I don't believe any such thing. 

a. Preceded by the definite article tal is equivalent to a de- 

El tal Fernandez Ilcgard manana. That (mentioned) Fernandez 
will arrive to-morrow. 

b. In questions que tal is equivalent to cdmo. 

iQu? tal sigue Vd.f or simply, iQue tal? How are you getting 


171 A. Idiomatic. 

cambiar de traje, to change d tiem[>o, on time. 

clothes. actualmente, at the present time 

pcnsar en, to think about. hoy mismo, this very day. 

ahora mismo, this very minute. tcner sed, to be thirsty. 

de frimera close, first class. {H ombre! Man alive! 
/No fait aba mds! The idea! 

en este momenta, en el momenta actual, at the present time. 
Faltan cinco minutos para las siete. It is five minutes to seven. 
con cinco minutos de anticipation, five minutes early. 
con cinco minutos de retraso, five minutes late. 


actual, present. gasto, expense. 

afortunado, fortunate. hacia, prep., towards. 

algo, adv., somewhat. hncsped, -a, host, guest. 
Alcmania, Germany. casa de hucspedes, boarding- 

amo, -a, proprietor. house. 

calendario, calendar. lavar (se), to wash. 

cruz, f., cross. numero, number. 

;cudnto! How, how much! omnibus, omnibus.* 
cuanto antes, as soon as possi- restaurdn, m., restaurant. 

ble. sed, f., thirst. 

estancia, stay. telegrama, m., telegram. 

falta, lack, fault. vapor, m., steam, steamer. 
faltar, to lack. par vapor, by boat. 

gabdn, m., overcoat. vaso, glass. 


a. Jose acaba de recibir un telegrama de un amigo suyo, un 
tal Sr. Brown que conocio el ano pasado en America. El tal amigo 
ha venido por vapor desde los Estados Unidos, y pasando por 
Alemania y Francia, llegafa a Madrid el veintisiete del mes actual, 
a las nueve de la manana. Mirando el calendario Jose nota que 
hoy mismo es el dia en que su amigo ha de llegar. Sacando el 
reloj ve que faltan solamcnte doce minutos para las nueve. Se 
pone el sombrero y el gaban y sale corriendo hacia la estacion. 
Afortunadamente el tren llega con cinco minutos de retraso, y Jose 
llega a tiempo para recibir a su amigo. 

b. ; Cuanto me alegro de verle, D. Eduardo ! Dejeme llevar 
la maleta. iQue tal paso Vd. el viaje? 

* Nouns ending in s in the singular, have the same form for the plural. 


Muy bien, pero me hallo algo cansado. <;Ha tenido Vd. que 
asperar mucho tiempo? 

Acabo de llegar ahora mismo. iNo tiene Vd. hambre? 

Si, y sobre todo mucha sed. Vamos a buscar un vaso de agua. 

i No quiere Vd. comer algo en el restauran de la estacion? 

Prefiero ir (que vayamos) cuanto antes al hotel, porque deseo 
lavarme y cambiar de traje antes de comer. iCual es el mejor 
hotel ? 

Hay tres 6 cuatro igualmente buenos. Se dice que el Hotel 
de Paris es de primera clase, pero yo le aconsejo ir (que vaya) 
a una casa de huespedes. Hay una muy buena en la calle de la 
Cruz, numero veinte. Conozco muy bien al amo, y estoy seguro 
de que le tratara muy bien a Vd. Un primo mio vive en la misma 

i Por que me aconseja Vd. ir a una casa de huespedes? 

Porque el gasto no es tan grande como en los hoteles. 

iTomamos un omnibus? 

Sera mas facil coger (tomar) el tranvia que pasa delante de 
la puerta. Despues de sacar su equipaje iremos juntos a la casa 
de huespedes, y le presentare al amo. Si no fuera que mi madre 
esta enferma en este momento, insistiria en que Vd. pasara en mi 
casa los dias de su estancia en Madrid. 

; Hombre, no faltaba mas ! No piense Vd. en tal cosa. En la 
casa de huespedes estare perfectamente. Espero que su senora 
madre se ponga buena en seguida, y que yo tenga pronto el gusto de 

c. iDe quien ha recibido Jose un telegrama? 

<:D6nde conocio Jose al tal amigo? 

i Por cuales paises ha pasado el tal Brown antes de venir a 

iComo sabe Jose que su amigo va a llegar hoy mismo? 

iQue se pone antes de salir? 

iLlega a tiempo el tren? 

iDe que se alegra tanto D. Jose? 

iQue le pregunta Jose a su amigo? 

iQue desea sobre todo su amigo? 

iQue desea hacer antes de comer? 

iCual es el mejor hotel de Madrid? 

i Por que aconseja Jose a su amigo que no vaya a ningun 

iComo sabe Jose que la casa de huespedes que esta en la calle 
de la Cruz es buena? 

i Por que no insiste Jose en que su aroigo pase algunos dias en 
su casa? 



172. Compound Tenses of the Subjunctive. The 
perfect, the two pluperfects and the future perfect of the 
subjunctive, are formed respectively with the help of the 
present, the imperfects and the future of the subjunctive 
of haber. Their use presents no difficulty. They are used 
in dependent clauses to translate the English perfect, plu- 
perfect and future perfect indicative. (See 502.) 

a. The perfect subjunctive follows the same tenses of the 
main clause as the present subjunctive, but it expresses time an- 
terior to that of the verb in the main clause. 

Siento que ella no haya venido todavia. I am sorry she has 
not come yet. 

b. The pluperfect subjunctives follow the same tenses of the 
main clause as the imperfect subjunctives, but they express time 
anterior to that of the verb of the main clause. 

Senti que no hubicsc (hubiera) llegado. I was sorry she had 
not arrived. 

r. The pluperfect subjunctives are also used in past conditions 
contrary to fact, in those places where the imperfect subjunctives 
would be used in present conditions contrary to fact (see 128). 

Si Inibicse tenido dinero, habria (hubicra) ido a Madrid. If I 
had had money, I should have gone to Madrid. 

d. The future perfect subjunctive may take the place of the 
future subjunctive, from which it does not differ essentially in 

Mi hijo me escribira cuando hubiere llegado (llegare). My 
son will write me when he arrives (shall have arrived). 

173. Comparison of Adverbs. 

a. The comparative of adverbs is formed, like that of adjec- 
tives, with mas or menos. 

mas fdcilmente, more easily; menos fdcilmente, less easily. 

b. The superlative of adverbs does not differ from the com- 
parative in form. 

Los que aprenden mas fdcilmente no son siempre los que apren- 
den mas. Those who learn the most easily are not always those 
who learn the most. 


174. Superlative without comparison. Superlative 
degree without comparison may be expressed by placing 
before an adjective or adverb an adverb expressing high 

Muy fdcil, muy fdcilmente, very easy, very easily. 
sumamente bien,' extremely well. 

a. The suffix -isimo applied to adjectives and adverbs ex- 
presses superlative degree, and words in -isimo may take the addi- 
tional adverbial suffix -mente. 

facilisimo, faciiisimamentc, very easy, very easily. 

b. A superlative without comparison may be formed by plac- 
ing before an adverb the neuter article lo, and after the adverb 
an expression of possibility. 

lo mejor posible, the best possible, as well as possible. 
lo mas que pude, the most that I could. 

175. Than. After an adjective, adverb or verb, "than" 
is regularly expressed by que. Note the following excep- 
tions : 

a. In a positive sentence, "than" is expressed by de before 
a numeral, and in a negative sentence, generally by que. 

Tcngo mas de dos mil libros. I have more than two thousand 

La casa no tlcne mas que cuatro pisos. The house has only 
four stories. 

b. After a noun and before a clause in which the same noun 
is understood, "than" is expressed by del que (de la que, de los 
que, de las que), the article agreeing with the noun understood. 

La casa ticne mas cuartos de los que Vd. ha visto. The house 
has more rooms than (the rooms) you have seen. 

c. Before a clause to which the verb of the first part of the 
sentence must be added to complete the sense, and before a clause 
after an adverb, "than" is expressed by de lo que. 

La casa tiene mas cuartos de lo que pensaba. The house has 
more rooms than I thought (it had). 

Es mas de lo que pensaba. It is more than I thought. 

176. Cuyo, -a, -os, -as, "whose." Cuyo is primarily 
an interrogative pronoun, equivalent to de quien but not 
so commonly used. It is more often used after a prepo- 
sition as an adjective. 



jCuyos (de quien) son estos libros? Whose books are these? 
jHn cuyo cuarto pongo el haul? In whose room do I put the 


a. Like other interrogatives, cuyo may be used relatively, in 
which case it does not have the written accent, and is used as an ad- 
jective only. 

La senora en cuya casa vive. The lady in whose house he lives. 

177. Valer, "to be worth." See 545. 


abajo, adv., below, downstairs. 

abundancia, abundance. 

adelantado, adj., in advance. 

ademds de, prep., in addition to. 

alcoba, bedroom. 

alegre, cheerful, happy. 

alto, high, tall. 

asunto, affair, business (gener- 
ally used in plu.). 

bajo, low. 

banar (se), to bathe. 

bano, bath. 
cuarto de bano, bathroom. 

comestibles, food, eatables. 

comida, food, meal, board, din- 
ner (at night). 

cubrir (de), to cover (with).* 

dar a, to give on, open on. 

debajo de, prep., under. 

desocupado, unoccupied. 

despensa, pantry. 

edificio, building. 

en media de, prep., in the middle 

etcetera, et cetera. 

exterior, outside, outer. 

gnardar, to keep. 

habitacion, f., room, apartment. 

interior, interior, inner. 

leer, to read (see 511). 

mcncionar, to mention. 

natural, adj., natural. 

nombre, m., name. 

ocupar, to occupy. 

patio, courtyard. 

piso, story, floor. 

portal, m., big outer door. 

portero, -a, janitor. 

pueblo, people, town. 

quedarse con, to take. 

sotano, cellar. 

sitbir, to bring up, take up, carry 


superior, superior, upper. 
tejado, roof. 
visita, visit, visitor. 


a. En Madrid no hay como en Nueva York, edificios de 
treinta 6 cuarenta pisos. Los edificios mas altos no tienen mas 
que seis. Los edificios de los pueblos pequeiios y las casas particu- 
lares no tienen tantos. Los pisos de una casa se llaman el piso 
bajo, el primer piso 6 principal, el segundo, el tercero, etcetera. 
En el piso bajo vive el portero con su familia. El portero per- 

* Past participle cubietto. 


mite pasar solamente a las personas que viven en la casa 6 que 
tienen asuntos en ella. En las calles principales de Madrid, la mayor 
parte de las casas tienen tiendas en el piso bajo, mientras que 
muchas familias viven en los pisos superiores. Las casas de hues- 
pedes ocupan por lo comun el principal y el segundo. Se entra en 
una casa por la puerta grande 6 portal, y se sube a los pisos superi- 
ores y se baja a la calle por la escalera. En la escalera hay puertas 
a la derecha y a la izquierda. Las habitaciones dan a la calle 6 al 
patio que esta en medio de la casa. Estos se llaman cuartos in- 
teriores y aquellos cuartos exteriores. Naturalmente los cuartos ex- 
teriores son mas claros y mas alegres. 

b. Entre los cuartos de una casa hay (se puede mencionar), 
ademas de aquellos cuyos nombres conocemos ya, las alcobas, la 
despensa y el cuarto de bano. Debajo de la casa esta el sotano, y 
la casa esta cubierta del tejado. En la sala es donde se reciben 
las visitas. En el comedor se come. Las comidas se preparan en 
la cocina. En la despensa se guardan los comestibles. Leemos y 
escribimos en la biblioteca, y en el cuarto de bano tomamos los 
bafios (nos banamos). 

c. j Buenas tardes, portera! iEsta aqui la casa de huespedes 
del Sr. Barrios? 

Si senor. Suba Vd. al piso segundo. 

(El caballero sube y llama a la puerta.) 

iEsta el amo? (Is the proprietor in?) 

El amo soy yo. iEn que puedo servirle? 

iTiene Vd. cuartos desocupados? 

i Para cuantas personas? 

Para mi solo. 

Tengo una habitacion grande con alcoba. 

iSe puede ver? 

Seguramente. Pase Vd. Aqui la tiene Vd. Tiene dos ven- 
tanas que dan a la calle, y entra el sol en abundancia por la 

iCuanto pide Vd. por la habitacion con la comida? 

Cincuenta pesetas por semana, adelantadas. 

Es mas de lo que deseaba pagar. 

Tengo otra habitacion interior, mas pequena que esta, pero muy 

No me gustan los cuartos que dan al patio. Me quedo con 
este, aunque me parece tin poquito caro. Mi baul esta abajo en 
el coche. Haga Vd. que lo suban cuanto antes. 

Esta bien. Juan, suba Vd. al numero ocho el equipaje de este 


d. iCuantos pisos tiene el edificio en que estamos? 
iEn que piso estamos? 

iPor donde subimos a los pisos superiores? 
. iComo se llaman los pisos de una casa? 
iQuien vive en el piso bajo de una casa espanola? 
Ademas de la habitacion del portero, <;que hay en el piso bajo? 
iComo se llama una puerta que da a la calle? 
iQue dos clases de cuartos tienen las casas espanoles? 
i Donde estan los patios de las casas? 
iCuales son los cuartos de una casa? 
iPara que sirve la despensa? iuna alcoba? 
iQue se hace en la biblioteca? 
i Donde se reciben las visitas? 

iCuanto hay que pagar en Madrid por un buen cuarto con la 

iCuanto hay que pagar aqui? 

iCuanto hay que pagar para la comida sola? 

iComo se dice en espanol, "I'll take this room?" 

iQuisiera Vd. tener un cuarto mas grande del que tiene ahora? 

iCual es la parte de la casa que esta debajo del piso bajo? 


178. Irregular Use of Tenses. 

a. As in English, the present may be used to express future 
time, or to express very vividly a series of acts in past time. 

I Donde pongo el haul? Where shall I put the trunk? 

jSabe Vd. lo que hagof Co jo el sombrero, bajo la escalera, 
corro hacia la estacion, d donde llego media minuto antes de salir 
el tren. I seized my hat, etc. 

b. The future and future perfect, and the conditional and 
conditional perfect are used- to express conjecture. They are then 
equivalent to the present, perfect, imperfect and pluperfect respec- 

iQue edad tendrd este ninof How old do you suppose this 
child is? 

Tendrd unos cinco anos. He is probably about five years old. 

iPor que habrd vendido su casa? I wonder why he has sold 
his house? 

Serian las nueve cuando me despertc. It was about nine when 
I awoke. 

Habria estudiado toda la noche. He had probably studied all 


179. The Perfect of the Past Definite. The perfect 
tense formed with the past definite of the auxiliary has not 
been mentioned before because it is so rarely used. It is 
used instead of the pluperfect after conjunctions of time, 
to express what took place immediately before something 

Cuando hube llegado a casa, fui en seguida a mi cuarto. When 
I had got home, I went at once to my room. 

a. The use of this tense is often avoided by the use of the 
past definite or by an infinitive phrase. 

Cuando llegue a casa, etc. 
Al lie gar a casa, etc. 

b. In this tense the past participle may come before the aux- 
iliary, separated from it by the conjunction que, here meaning 
"when," "as soon as." 

Llegado que hube a casa, etc. When I had got home, etc. 

180. Personal Object. When both subject and object 
are things, the personal a may be placed before the object 
to distinguish it from the subject. 

Al cocido sigue el principio } Th . f n , 

El principle sigue al cocido. ) 

181. Nunca and jamas, "never," "not ever." It was 
found that the double negative is the rule with nada, nadie, 
etc. This is equally true of the adverbs nunca and jamas, 
which are usually found after a negative verb. They may, 
however, stand first in a sentence or clause. 

No he estado nunca (jamas') en 1 

Espana. > I have never been in Spain. 

Nunca he estado en Espana. } 

a. Nunca and jamas are translated positively in questions ex- 
pecting negative answers, and after a comparative. 

lV\6 Vd. nunca tal cosaf Did you ever see such a thing? 
Ahora mas que nunca. Now more than ever. 

182. Si and no. Si and no are used elliptically in the 
second of two contrasted sentences or clauses, to avoid the 
repetition of the verb. 


En^ Espaiia no se come mucho por la mafiana, pero en Ingla- 
terra si. In Spain they don't eat much in the morning, but in Eng- 
land they do. 

A mi padre le gustan los huevos, pero d mi no. My father likes 
eggs, but I don't. 

iSe levanta Vd. temprano? Yo no. Do you get up early? I 

o. Used apart with a pronoun, a noun, or another adverb, si 
and no follow. 

Ella no. Not she. Mi padre no. Not my father. Todavia no. 
Not yet. 

b. Certain verbs commonly followed by que require que before 
si and no in answering questions. The verb of the question is un- 

Supongo que si. I suppose so. 

Espero que no. I hope not. 

Dicen que si. They say so. 

Responded que no. He answered that he would not. 

183. Definite Article. The definite article is used in 
Spanish before a noun in apposition with a personal pro- 
noun, whether expressed or implied in a verb-form. 

Nosotros los espanoles. We Spaniards. 

Los espanoles tenets . . . You Spaniards have . . . 

184. In address senor and senora are currently, often 
untranslatably, employed before a title, or the name of a 

Sefior Marques. Marquis. 
Senor Presidcnte. Mr. President. 

185. Traer, "to bring." For conjugation see 544. 

136. Idiomatic. 

d la cspanola, in the Spanish style. 
d la amerlcana, in the American style. 
d la franccsa, in the French style. 


aceite, m., olive-oil. ahnuerso, lunch, noon meal 

acoslnmbrarse d, to get used to. asar, to roast. 

ahnorzar, to lunch, have lunch nxadn. roast mea-t. 

(noon meal) See 519. carne, f., meat. 


cocido, boiled dish, stew. national, national. 

cocer, to boil (see 519). ordinario, ordinary, common. 

cocina, cooking. par, m., couple. 

commoner (de), to compose parccer a, to look like, resem- 

(of), (see 538). ble. 

comer, to dine (at night). pimiento, pepper (the fruit). 

consistir en, to consist of. plato, plate, dish. 

'.claro! To be sure! postres, dessert (masc. plu.). 

ensalada, salad. principle, beginning, principal 

frito, fried. course. 

fruta, fruit. sano, healthy, wholesome. 

garbanzos, chick-peas. sopa, soup. 
huevo, egg; huevos pasados par suponer, to suppose (see 538). 

agua, boiled eggs. tocino, bacon. 

importancia, importance. tomate, m., tomato. 

lista, list; de los platos, bill- tortilla, omelet, pan-cake. 

of-fare. verdura, greens. 
mantequilla, butter. 


o. iLlamo Vd., D. Eduardo? 

Si, seiior amo. Deseaba saber acerca de las comidas. Supongo 
que en Espana, como en los demas paises, comeran lo menos tres 
veces al dia. Claro; pero nosotros los Espanoles no comemos tanto 
por la manana como Vds. los Ingleses. Ordinariamente (For lo 
comun) no tomamos mas que chocolate 6 cafe con pan y mante- 

Eso esta bien. No me he acostumbrado nunca a tomar mucho 
por la manana, pero si me gusta comer temprano. 

La criada le traera el desayuno a su cuarto a la hora que Vd. 

iCual es la hora del almuerzo? 

Almorzamos a mediodia y comemos a las ocho de la noche. 

iEn que consisten las comidas aqui? 

Al almuerzo se come un .par de huevos fritos 6 pasados por 
agua, 6 una tortilla de huevos, y entonces algun plato de carne, y 
fruta. Para la comida de la noche hay siempre sopa y el cocido. 
Al cocido sigue el principio, que es carne asada con ensalada, y 
los postres. 

iQue es el cocido? 

El cocido, que se llama tambien olla 6 puchero, es el plato 
nacional de Espana. Esta compuesto de carne cocida 6 tocino, con 
garbanzos y verdura. 

La lista de los platos se parece mucho a la de mi pais, y creo 
que todas las cosas que ha mencionado Vd. son muy sanas. " 

Lo son, y le gustara seguramente comer a la espanola. si le 


gustan los platos preparados con aceite, piinientos y toinate; por- 
que estos tres comestibles tienen mucha importancia en la cocina 

b. iCon quien estaba hablando el extranjero? 

i A quien acaba de llamar? 

iAcerca de que deseaba preguntarle? 

,; Donde toman los espanoles el desayuno ? 

,; Quien se lo trae? 

iA que hora almuerzan los espanoles? 

iA que hora almorzamos nosotros los americanos? 

iEn que consiste el desayuno de Vd. ? 

iEn que consiste el desayuno de los espanoles? 

iComen mas a mediodia 6 por la noche? 

iComemos nosotros por la noche mas tarde que los espanoles? 

iEn que consiste la comida de la noche? 

iDe que esta compuesto el cocido? 

i Que es el principio? 

Ademas del de cocido, ique otros nombres tiene el plato nacional 
de Espana? 

En la lista de los platos de los espanoles ique cosa le gusta 

i Me hace Vd. el favor de mencionar algunos comestibles que 
tengan mucha importancia en la cocina espanola? 

Hablando de las personas i que significa sano? 

Hablando de los comestibles i que significa? 

iQue significa un par? 

iComo se llaman las tres comidas? 

I Prefiere Vd. los huevos fritos, 6 las tortillas? 

<;De que modo prefiere Vd. que se preparen los huevos? 




ARTICLE definite, used before nouns in apposition with pronoun (183) 
ADJECTIVE descriptive, superlative without comparison (174) 

possessive, long forms (167) 
NOUN plural of nouns whose singular ends in s (note to vocab. XXIX) 

personal objective with names of things (180) 
PRONOUN personal, indirect object to express possession (169) 
interrogative, cuyo (176) 
relative, cuyo (176) 
indefinite, tal (171) 
VERB perfect of the past definite (179) 

compound tenses of the subjunctive (172) 

irregular use of tenses (178) 

verbs that take subjunctive or infinitive, prcferir, alegrarse d, in- 

sistir en, aconsejar, dejar, permitir, prohibir (166) 
parecer and hacer falta (168) 

irregular, poner (170, 538), valer (545), traer (544) 
ADVERBS comparison (173-174) 

nunca and jamas (181) 
si and no (182) 

PREPOSITIONS used to introduce a clause (165) 
MISCELLANEOUS Senor in address (184) 
Than (175) 
idiomatic (171 a) 


Turn into Spanish, i. The Northern Spaniards are not so 
gay as those of the South. 2. Don't forget to (de) bring your 
overcoat and steamer-rug. We shall need them before we get 
back. 3. John was so thirsty -that he insisted that the cab should 
stop in order that he might get a glass of water. 4. Do you prefer 
to travel by train or by boat? 5. I should like to take a bath 
before dinner. Is the bath-room on this floor? 6. In their cook- 
ing the Spaniards use a great deal of olive-oil. 7. There are 
three families living on the upper floor of this house. 8. Give 
me a list of things you need. 9. All the rooms of this apartment 
are heated from November to March. 10. The proprietor of the 
boarding-house is a cousin of ours. II. I am sure that I could 
never get used to eating meat at breakfast like you Americans. 
12. In America there are some extremely high buildings. 13 The 
apartment consists of a sitting-room and three bed-rooms, two of 
which open on the court. 14. There is no kitchen, but there is a 
restaurant on the ground floor. 15. Do you know that you re- 
semble an aunt of mine? 16. Let us suppose, for instance, that 


you have just received a telegram from Germany. 17. I told him 
not to read at night. 18. Did you wash your hands? 19. The 
mother washed the child's hands. 20. This is the young gentleman 
whose father took lunch with us yesterday. 21. The janitor put 
the boxes in the cellar. 22. I am sure that such a thing never 
happened. 23. As soon as Mary had prepared her lessons for the 
following day, she went to bed. 24. I do not think they have ar- 
rived yet. 25. There were more eggs than I needed to make the 
omelet. 26. Man ! I tell you the house was worth much more 
than it cost me. 27. It is worth at the present time more than 
20,000 pesetas. 28. They are coming to-morrow if it is good 
weather. 29. My nephew said that he was glad we had not taken 
the house. 30. How much he thanked me for what I did for him ! 
31. I advise you to cross to the other side of the station. 32. All 
the inner rooms are unoccupied. 33. It did not seem to me that 
the house was worth what he paid for it. 34. Thanks, I never 
smoke. 35. What you need is an abundance of fruit. 36. We 
occupy three outer rooms on the second floor. 37. My father 
forbade me to bring such a thing into the house. 38. Bring it 
here this very minute. 39. On looking at my watch I saw that 
I should arrive several minutes late. 40. I shall put all the food 
in the pantry. 41. In addition to the soup and the main course, 
there is salad and dessert. 42. The natives like garbanzos but I 
don't. 43. I wonder how many families live in this house? 44. It 
is a matter of little importance. 


187. Hacer in Time Expressions. Hacer is used im- 
personally with an expression of time as its object, to indi- 
cate the point from which time is reckoned forward. 

a. Hace, hacia and hard, used with a verb in the past definite 
or pluperfect, express respectively the time that has elapsed, had 
elapsed, or will have elapsed since something took place. 

Llego hace un ano. He arrived a year ago. 

Habia llegado hacia un ano. He had arrived a year before. 

Llcgd hard un ano. It will be a year since he arrived. 

b. Hace, hacia and hard, used with a verb in the present, im- 
perfect or future, express respectively the time during which some- 
thing has been going on, had been going on or will have been 
going on. 


Estudiamos espanol hace un ano. We have been studying 
Spanish for a year. 

Estudidbamos espanol hacia un ano. We had been studying 
Spanish for a year. 

Estudiaremos espanol hard un ano. We shall have been study- 
ing Spanish a year. 

c. In any of the sentences above, haccr and its object may 
come first, que being used to introduce the following verb. 

Hace un ano que llego. He arrived a year ago. 

Hacia un ano que habia llegado. He had arrived a year before. 

Hace un ano que estudiamos espanol. We have been studying 
Spanish for a year. 

Hacia un ano que estudidbamos espanol. We had been study- 
ing Spanish for a year. 

d. In questions and negative sentences, the order preferred 
is that of f. 

jHace mas de un ano que llego? Is it more than a year since 
he came? 

jNo hace cerca de dos anos que estudiamos espanol? Have we 
not been studying Spanish for nearly two years? 

No hace un ano que llegd. It is not a year since he arrived. 

iCuanio tiempo hacia que estdbamos alii? How long had we 
been there? 

e. After time expressions introduced by desde (prep.) and 
dcsde que (conj.), "since," or desde combined with hacer, the use 
of tenses corresponds in the main to rules a and b, though a definite 
act in past time may be expressed by the perfect. 

Desde el ano pasado^ como muy poco por la manana. Since 
last year I have been eating very little in the morning. 

Desde que estoy aqui no me siento bueno. I have not been 
well since I have been here. 

Desde que vine estoy enf-ermo. I have been sick ever since I 

jDesde citdndo estamos aqui? How long have we been here? 

Desde hace tres meses. Since three months ago. 

jDesde entonces ha estado yd. en Espana? Since then have 
you (ever) been in Spain? 

/. In sentences similar to the foregoing, to express what has 
not taken place or what had not taken place, the perfect or plu- 
perfect is used. 

Hace una semana que no he estudiado. I have not studied for 
a week. 

Hacia una semana que no habia estudiado. I had not studied 
for a week. 

jCudntos dias hace que no ha venido d venne? For how many 
days has he not come to see me? 

Desde el viernes pasado no ha venido. He has not come since 
last Friday. 


188. Oir, "to hear." For conjugation see 536. 

a. Oir and ver may take as object the subject of an infinitive, 
which may also take an object. If the subject of the infinitive is 
a noun, it follows the infinitive. 

La v'l cnirar. I saw her come in. 

Quisicra ver preparar una comida espanola. I should like to 
see a Spanish meal prepared. 

Anoche oi cantor a Caruso. Last night I heard Caruso sing. 

Voy a ver preparar el cocido a Maria. I am going to see Mary 
prepare the cocido. 

189. Todo, -a, -os, -as, "all," "every," "whole." The 
following uses of todo should be noted. 

a. In the singular before a noun, or in the plural with the 
definite article and an expression of time, todo is translated "every." 

Todo hombre debe sabcrlo. Every man should know it. 
Todos los meses. Every month. 

b. In the singular with the definite article and an expression 
of time, todo is translated "the whole." 

Todo el dia he trabajado. I have worked the whole (all) day. 

c. The masculine singular is used as a pronoun meaning "ev- 
erything." When the object of a verb, todo so used is accompanied 
by the neuter pronoun lo. 

Todo es hennoso. Everything is beautiful. 

Se lo dije todo. I told him everything. 

Este hombre todo lo sabe. This man knows everything. 

190. Impersonal Verbs. An impersonal verb may be 
used with an indirect pronoun object and infinitive, instead 
of a clause. 

No me es poslble ir. It is not possible for me to go. 

191. Note how the use of a noun to modify another 
noun is avoided in the following phrases. See 55 a. 

taca para cafe, coffee-cup. cuchillo de mesa, table-knife. 

cajon del aparador, sideboard cuchara para sopa, soup-spoon 



aceiluna, olive. ausente, absent. 

agrio, sour. aziicar, m., sugar. 

aparador, m., sideboard. bcbida, drink. 

armario, cupboard, bookcase, bistc, m., beefsteak, 

wardrobe, clothespress. boca, mouth. 


botella, bottle. mama, mamma. 

cajon, m., drawer. manera, manner; de que, so 

came de ccrdo, pork. that (with subjunctive). 

came de vaca, beef. mantel, m., table-cloth. 

condimento, condiment. mercado, market. 

convidado, invited guest (plu. mostrar, to show (R-ch. I). 

company). necesario, necessary. 

cordero, lamb. patata, potato. 

cortar, to cut. pescado, fish. 

corredor, m., corridor, hall. pimienta, pepper (the spice). 

cuchara, spoon (large). polio, chicken. 

cucharilla, teaspoon. queso, cheese. 

cuchillo, knife. rosbif, m., roast-beef. 
dulce, sweet (plu. sweets, can- sal, f., salt. 

dy). servilleta, napkin. 

echar, to pour, throw. te, m., tea. 

estante, m., shelf. tenedor, m., fork. 

instntccidn, f., instruction. tcrnera, veal. 

jamon, m., ham. vinagre, m., vinegar. 

limpio, clean. vino, wine. 


a. Hombre, me parece que no llegara nunca la hora de la 

iTiene Vd. tanta hambre? 

Si. En mi pais acostumbramos a comer a las seis y aqui hay 
que esperar hasta las ocho. Ayer, no sabiendo la hora de la comida, 
me volvi a casa a las cinco y media. Cuando al fin me llamaron 
a comer, hacia dos horas que estaba esperando. 

b. i For que no viniste cuando llame? 
No la 01 a Vd. llamar. 

Ale has dicho que quieres aprender a poner la mesa. Pues 
bien, esta noche tenemos convidados y es preciso que nos ayudes 
a mi y a Rosa. Ella estara ocupada todo el dia en la cocina, y 
a mi me es necesario ir al mercado a comprar carne y polios. Lo 
que quiero es que pongas la mesa, lo mejor que puedas. Has visto 
hacerlo varias veces a Rosa, y te ensefiare donde hallaras todo lo 
que necesites. Si deseas instrucciones mientras que este ausente, 
pideselas a Rosa. 

Esta bien mama. Tratare de hacerlo de manera que este con- 
tenta conmigo. 

Primero, hay que llevar todo esto a la cocina. Entonces busca 
tin mantel limpio y ocho servilletas en el armario del corredor. Los 
platos y los vasos para vino y las tazas para cafe, los hallaras en este 
otro armario. En el cajon del aparador estan los cuchillos, los 
tenedores. las cucharas para sopa y para servir, y las cucharillas. 


En el estante hay sal, pimienta y vinagre. Me voy ahora, pero 
me volvere luego. 

Al volverse Vd., todo estara listo. 

c. iCuanto tiempo hace que Vd. esta en esta escuela (univer- 
sidad) ? 

iCuanto tiempo hace que estudiamos espanol en esta clase? 

iCuantas lenguas ha estudiado Vd. ? ,;Cuales son? 

iDesde cuando no ha estudiado Vd. aleman 6 frances? 

.jDesde cuando estudiamos espanol? 

Al entrar en la escuela (universidad) en el mes de septiembre 
(octubre) pasado, icuanto tiempo hacia que Vd. no habia estu- 

i Cuantos minutos hace que entramos en este edificio ? 

d. iCon que se corta la carne? 

i Con que llevamos a la boca las cosas que comemos? 

i Para que sirven las cucharas? 

iQue se necesita para poner la mesa? 
v iEn que se sirve la carne? ^el vino? 

iCuales son los comestibles que le parecen a Vd. mas nece- 
sarios para la vida? 

iQue clase de carne le gusta mas a Vd. ? 

iQue condimentos empleamos todos? 

iQue bebidas se beben en Espana? iaqui? 

iDe donde se echa el vino? 

iCual es el condimento mas dulce? iel mas fuerte? iel mas 
agrio? ^el mas necesario? 

.jComo se dice en espanol: "Please pass the salt"? 


192. Adjectives. Position. An adjective may stand 
before its noun if it names a quality generally associated 
with the noun, as in the case of "white snow," "black ink," 
etc. Emphasis or figurative use may also cause an adjective 
to precede its noun. Some adjectives regularly have one 
meaning when they precede and another when they follow. 

la blanca nieve, white snow; MHO casa blanca, a white house. 

pobre muchacho, poor boy; un hombre pobre, a poor man (lit- 

ciertas cosas, certain things; una cosa cierta, an assured thing. 


193. Grande and santo. Grande, "big," "grand," 
"great," follows the noun when it means literally large in 
size. Meaning "great," it precedes, and may lose its final 
syllable before a masculine or feminine noun. 

un muchacho grande, a big boy. 
una gran (de) caa, a great (remarkable) house. 
a. Santo, "holy," "Messed," when used before the name of a 
male Saint generally loses its last syllable. 
una santa mujer, a saintly woman. 
San Juan, St. John. 

194. Otro, -a, -os, -as, "other," "another," "others." 
Otro is both pronoun and adjective. Used as an adjective 
it precedes its noun. The indefinite article may not be used 
with it. Used with a numeral or adverb of quantity it pre- 

otro libra, another book; el otro libra, the other book. 

Trdigame otro. Bring me another. 

Traigame los otros. Bring me the others. 

Tengo otros muchos, otros dos. I have many others, two others. 

el otro dia, the other day. 

194 A. Cada, "each," "every." Cada is invariable in 
form, and as an adjective precedes its noun. It is often 
associated with a numerical expression. 

cada casa, each house; cada dos casas, every two houses. 

a. As a pronoun cada is associated with uno or cual. 

Cada una (cual) de las muchachas, each one of the girls. 

Plable con cada cual (uno) de los discipulos. I talked with each 
of the pupils. 

195. Sino, "if not," "but." Sino is used instead of 
pero to introduce a positive statement that is contrasted 
with a preceding negative one. 

No es pobre, slno al contrario es bastante rico. He is not poor, 
but on the contrary he is quite wealthy. 

a. No with sino and a verb may mean "only" or "except." 

No tengu sino dies pesetas. I have but (only) ten pesetas. 

No tengo dinero sino diez pesetas que me did mi madre. 1 
have no money except ten pesetas which mother gave me. 



196. Dar is often used in idioms with the meaning 
"to strike." 

Estan dando las dos. It is striking two. 
jHan dado ya las once? Has it struck eleven yet? 
Le di con el paraguas. I struck him with the umbrella. 
No me da la gana. I don't feel like it. (Lit., The notion 
doesn't strike me.) 

197. Aun. The adverb aun is equivalent to todavia, 
meaning "still" in a positive sentence, and "yet' 5 with a 
negative. When it follows a verb it bears an accent and is 
pronounced as two syllables. As a conjunction it means 

We still have time. 

Aun no ha venido. He has not yet come. 
Llegaremos d tiemf>o, aun yendo a pie. We shall get there on 
time, even if we go on foot. 

198. Idiomatic. 

d ver, let's see. 

tener ganas, to feel like. 

de buena gana, gladly. 

de mala gana, unwillingly. 

No importa. No matter. 

No me importa. I don't care. 

Lo mismo me da. It's all the 

same to me. 
por esto, on this account. 

par eso, on that account. 
ide que manera? in what way? 
de otra manera, in another way. 
de esta manera, in this way. 
ocho dias, a week. 
quince dias, a fortnight. 
tener puesto, to have on. 
echar una carta al correo, to 
"mail" a letter. 


npurarse, to be worried, dis- 

automdvil, m., automobile. 
buson, m., letter-box. 
cama, bed. 

campo, country, field. 
cantidad, f., amount, quantity. 
/caramba! (exclamation). 
cartero, letter-carrier. 
(cnlimo, 100 = i peseta, 
cerrar, to shut (R-ch. I). 
cortes, polite. 
correo, post-office, mail. 
cuenta, account, bill. 

cumpleanos, m., birthday. 

empezar (d), to begin, com- 
mence, start (R-ch. I, 507 d) 

Enrique, Henry. 

enviar, to send (see 510). 

estanco, tobacco-store. 

extranjero, foreign. 

felicitar (por), to congratulate 

felis, happy, fortunate. 

gana, inclination. 

importar, to be of importance, 
to matter, to make a differ- 


importe, m., amount (of a bill, postal, postal. 

etc.). prcstar, to lend. 

invitar (d), to invite (to). querido, dear. 

motivo, motive, cause; con de, rico, rich. 

concerning, on. sello, stamp. 

nada, adv., (not) at all. sastre, tailor. 

peor, worse, worst. sobre, m., envelope, wrapper. 
pobre, poor. 


a. ; Levantese, hombre! <jVa Vd. a quedar todo el santo dia 
en la cama? 

Dejeme Carlos. Aun es temprano. 

No es temprano sino bastante tarde; y Vd. sabe bien que Juan 
nos ha invitado a pasar el dia en la casa de campo de su tio, y 
que viene a buscarnos con el automovil. 

Si, i caramba ! Lo olvidaba por complete. Verdaderamente no 
tengo ganas de ir. Abra la ventana para ver si hace buen tiempo. 

(Carlos abre la ventana y el sol entra en abundancia. Aun 
en el verano muchos espanoles duermen con las ventanas cerradas.) 

El dia es magnifico (Hace un tiempo magnifico), pero si Vd. 
no quiere ir, a mi no me importa. Iremos otro dia. 

Si quiero. Cuando le dije que no, aim tenia sueno. Me visto 
cuanto antes. Digale a Rosa que prepare el agua para mi bano, y 
que traiga el chocolate, i Han traido el periodico ? 

Todavia no; pero aqui tiene Vd. dos cartas y una tar j eta pos- 
tal. El cartero las ha traido ahora mismo. <;De quien viene esta 
carta con el sobre azul y el sello extranjcro? 

DC mi pobre primo. Esta enfermo desde hace algun tiempo. 
Espero que no se encuentre peer. A ver lo que dice. (Abre la 
carta y la lee). 

Querido Enrique; Voy a empezar mi carta diciendole que cada 
dia me siento mejor . . . 

Esta otra carta sera de mi sastre, quien me escribe cada dos 
dias pidiendome el importe de su cuenta. Y no es nada cortes. 

No se apure por eso. Estoy rico en este momento, y le prestare 
de buena gana la cantidad que le hace falta. ^De quien es la tar- 

De mi sobrina Luisa, quien me felicita por (con motivo de) 
mi cumpleanos. 

i Cuando fue su cumpleanos? 


j Hombre ! no lo sabia. Que Vd. los tenga siempre felices. 

Muchas gracias. Creo tener tiempo para responder a estas 


cartas antes que llegue Juan. iTiene Vd. sellos de correo de quince 

No tengo ninguno ; sino de cinco centimes. 

Lo mismo da. Echaremos las cartas al correo al pasar por la 
calle de Carretas. 

b. Despues de escribir una carta ponemos en el sobre un sello 
de quince centimes si deseamos enviarla de algun punto de Espana 
a cualquier otro punto del pais. Para los paises extranjeros hay 
que poncr un sello de veinticinco centimes. Los sellos se compran 
en Espana en los estancos, 6 como aqui, en la oficina de correos. 
En los estancos hay buzones en donde podemos echar las cartas, 
y de donde las sacan los carteros para llevarlas al correo. 

c. iQuien viene a despertarle a Enrique? 
i Donde van a pasar el dia ? 

iQuien viene a buscar a Enrique y a Carlos? 

iDe que manera (modo) van al campo? 

iEn cuya casa de campo van a pasar el dia? 

i Sabe Vd. por que los espanoles duermen con las ventanas 

Porque temen el viento frio de la noche. 

iQuien nos trae las cartas? 

iQue trae ademas de las cartas? 

iCuantas cartas le trajo el cartero a Enrique? 

iDe quienes eran las cartas? 

i Como sabcmos que este primo de Enrique no esta en Espana? 

iQue le pidio el sastre a Enrique? 

iLe escribe a menudo el sastre? 

iPor que no le ha pagado el joven? 

iQuien le dijo a Enrique que no se apurase con motivo de la 

iCuanto dinero le presta Carlos a su amigo? 

i Donde podemos comprar los sellos de correo? 

iDe cuanto es el sello que ponemos en una carta para Espana? 
ipara cualquier punto de nuestro pais? 

iEn que calle esta la oficina de correos de esta ciudad? ide 

iQuien hizo el traje que Vd. tiene puesto? 

iCuando es el dia de su cumpleaiios de Vd. ? 

iCnanto pide un buen sastre por un traje? ipor un gaban? 

iDe que modo enviamos las cartas de un pueblo a (para) o*ro? 

iCuando empezo Vd. a estudiar espanol? 

iHa dado ya la una? iQue hora dara dcntro de pocos minutos? 



199. Personal pronouns. These additional facts about 
personal pronouns are for completeness, rather than for any 
conversational use which the student will be able to make 
of them. 

a. The subject forms nos, "we," and vos, "you," are occa- 
sionally found in modern Spanish. Nos is similar to the English 
editorial "we," and vos is singular, though used always with a verb 
of the second person plural. 

b. In literary texts, contrary to the rules learned, we often 
find an object pronoun attached to a verb which is not an infinitive, 
present participle or positive imperative. This occurs chiefly when 
the verb stands first in the sentence or clause. 

c. An indirect object pronoun which is not necessary for sense 
and which cannot be translated, is often found associated with an- 
other object pronoun. This is technically called the ethical dative 
or dative of interest. It gives to the phrase a special flavor rarely 
appreciated by foreigners. 

Pongamele el sombrero al nino. Put on the child's hat for him. 

200. Reflexives used reciprocally. A reflexive verb, 
if its meaning allows, may express in the plural the recipro- 
cal action upon each other of the several individuals repre- 
sented by a plural or compound subject. 

Los dos amigos se felicitan. The two friends congratulate each 

a. If it is not clear that the action expressed by the reflexive 
is reciprocal, it may be made clear by using after the verb the 
phrase lino a otro-, "each other," appropriately inflected. 

Estos muchachos se ayudaban uno & otro. 
Juan y su hermana se ayudaban uno a otra. 
Todos debemos ayudarnos unos & otros. 

b. The definite article may be used before uno and otro, but 
it is not required. 

Las muchachas se ayudaban las unas d las otras. 


201. Adverbial Clauses with two Subjunctives. 
There are many alternative clauses expressive of uncertain- 
ty or indefiniteness, which contain two subjunctives. The 
first may generally be explained as a sort of imperative, the 
second as an imperative or an adjective clause. The whole 
alternative expression is an adverb clause modifying the 
verb of the main clause. 

Digan lo que quieran, me ire manana. Let them say what they 
will, I shall go to-morrow. 

Llueva 6 no llueva, llegaremos a tiempo. Whether it rain or 
not, we shall arrive on time. 

Dijo que, lloviese 6 no lloviexe, llegariamos a tiempo. He said 
that we should arrive on time, whether it rained or not. 

Cueste lo que costare (cueste), lo necesito y lo comprare. Cost 
what it may, I need it and I shall buy it. 

Sean ricos 6 scan pobres, etc. Be they rich or (be they) poor, 

202. Impersonal Verbs. Verbs that describe acts of 
the forces of nature are impersonal and consequently lack- 
ing in most of their forms. They are commonly found only 
in the infinitive, present and past participles, and the third 
person singular of each tense. Among the commonest are: 
Hover, "to rain," (R-ch. I), nevar, "to snow," (R-ch. I), 
helar, "to freeze," (R-ch. I), relampaguear, "to lighten," 
tronar, "to thunder," (R-ch. I), anochecer, "to become 
night," (see 513), and amanecer, "to dawn," "to become 
morning" (see 513). 

203. Collective Nouns. Collective nouns generally 
take a verb in the singular. 

En el vcrano, la genie rica va & su casa de campo. In summer 
rich folks go to their country houses. 

204. Indefinite Article omitted in exclamations. In 
exclamations of the type "What a pretty flower !" the article 
is omitted, and tan or mas is inserted before the adjective. 

jQiie nina mds bonita! What a pretty child! 
iQue genie tan simpdtica! What charming people! 



205. Andar, "to go," "move," "travel." For conjuga- 
tion see 525. Andar is used instead of ir when no definite 
object or destination is expressed or implied. 

El tren anda con mucha velocidad. The train travels very fast. 

Los omnibus andan despacio. Omnibuses go slowly. 

Andar a pie. To walk (as opposed to some other means of 

206. Idiomatic. 

tardar en, to be long, to take 

q, principios de julio, at the be- 
ginning of July. 

a tnediados de enero, about the 
middle of January. 

a fines de marzo, toward the 
end of March. 

a caballo, on horseback. 

al fresco, in the open air. 

dar un paseo, to take a walk 

(or a ride). 
dar una vuelta, to take a turn 

(short walk). 


alguno que otro, some ... or 


aire, m., air. 
aguacero, shower. 
arbol, m., tree. 
bajo, prep., below. 
bafios, bathing resort (plu.). 
bianco, white. 
caballo, horse. 
Castilla, Castile. 
cero, zero. 
de ves en cuando, from time to 

diferir, to postpone, defer (R- 

ch. II). 

estio, mid-summer. 
fresco, fresh, cool, fresh air. 
gente, f., people, folks. 
grado, degree, grade. 
hacienda, farm, estate. 
hielo, ice, frost. 
lluvia, rain. 
lluvioso, rainy. 
llenar, to fill. 

mar, m., sea. 

montafia, mountain. 

negro, black, negro. 

nieve, f., snow. 

nube, f., cloud. 

objeto, object. 

paraguas, m., umbrella 

pasearse, to take a walk (or a 


paseo, a walk (or a ride). 
piedra, stone. 
puro, pure. 
raro, rare. 

sin embargo, nevertheless. 
sociedad, f., society. 
sorprender, to surprise. 
tardar, to delay. 
temperatura, temperature. 
tempestad, f., thunder-storm. 
termometro, thermometer. 
tierra, earth, land, country. 
velocidad, f., velocity, speed. 
vendedor, seller. 



a. i Con cuanta velocidad anda este automovil! (jQue de 
prisa, etc.) 

iLe gusta? 

Siempre me ha gustado andar de prisa, y me gusta pasearme 
de cualquier modo, pero sobre todo en automovil. iCuanto hay 
a la hacienda de su tio? 

Hay bastante distancia pero no tardaremos en llegar. i Que 
aire mas puro, verdad? 

Si, y sin embargo en la ciudad se estaran muriendo del calor. 
iSabe Vd. que me sorprende no ver mas arboles en este campo? 

En Castilla no hay mas que tierra y piedras. Arboles no los 
hay sino de vez en cuando, 6 en las montanas altas. 

Mire Vd. aquella nube negra. <;No le parece que vamos 4 
tener lluvia? 

Es posible. Las tempestades no son raras a mediados de 
agosto. Espero que no sea mas que un aguacero que pronto pase. 
Pero llueva 6 no, tenemos paraguas, y llegaremos dentro de un 
cuarto de hora a la hacienda. 

b. A todos los espanoles les gusta pasearse por la tarde, sea 
a caballo 6 sea en coche. Los que no pueden andar de otra manera 
andan a pie. El objeto de este paseo es de tomar el sol en el 
invierno y el fresco en el verano, y de saludar a los conocidos. 
Claro es que en el estio difieren el paseo hasta despues del anoche- 
cer. A esta hora las aceras y los cafes se llenan de gente, y los 
vendedores de agua fresca y de bebidas heladas tienen mucho que 
hacer entonces. Las familias que componen la alta sociedad de 
Madrid, las familias ricas, y muchas que no lo son pero que quieren 
parecerlo, salen a principios de junio para su casa de campo 6 
para alguno que otro de los muchos banos de mar. Se vuelven a 
la ciudad a fines de septiembre 6 cuando no tengan (tuvieren) mas 

c. iDe que modo (manera) prefiere Vd. pasearse? 
iQue nos sorprende en el campo de Castilla? 
iQue hay alii si no hay arboles? 

iDonde se encuentran los arboles pues? 

iEn que meses tenemos tempestades aqui? 

i Tenemos tempestades en el mes de diciembre? iqtte tenemos 

^Nieva en abril? ique hace pues? 

<:Ha llovido mucho este ano? .jesta lloviendo ahora? illovera 
hoy? ihabra nieve? .jhelo anoche? iesta nevando? 

iEs caro el hielo este ano? 


i Le parece que el hielo debe ser barato en Espana? 

iQu temperatura indica el termometro? .jcuantos grades bajo 
cero? <:cuantos grades sobre cero? 

iQue color tiene la nieve? iel pizarron? iuna nube que trae 
lluvia ? 

iAndan despacio los trenes americanos? 

iA donde van a fines de Mayo los madrilenos ricos? 

iAndan mas de prisa los caballos que los automoviles? 

i Agua fresca! <;Quien la quiere? 



ARTICLE indefinite, omitted in certain exclamations (204) 

ADJECTIVE (a) position (192) 

(b) loss of final syllable of grande and santo (193) 

NOUN collective, agreement (203) 

PRONOUN (i) personal (a) subject forms nos and vos (1993) 

(b) position of object form (199 b) 

(c) ethical dative (199 c) 

(2) indefinite, todo (189), otro (194), cada (194 A) 
VERB (a) reciprocal use of reflexive (zoo) 

(b) impersonal, with indirect object (190) 

(c) " descriptive of natural phenomena (202) 

(d) subjunctive in alternative expressions (adverb clauses), (201) 

(e) hacer in time expressions (187) 

(f) andar (205, 525) 

(g) oir (188, 536) 

(h) dar in idioms (196) 
ADVERB aun (197) 

MISCELLANEOUS idiomatic (198, 206) 

p_hrases instead of nouns as modifiers (191) 
sino (195) 


Turn into Spanish, i. There are a hundred centimes in a 
peseta; consequently if a bottle of wine costs me a peseta and a 
half, I pay a hundred and fifty centimes for it. 2. Bring me a 
couple of fried eggs and a cup of tea. 3. God helps the man who 
helps himself. 4. On the upper shelf of the book-case in the hall 
there is a reading book. Ask Rosa to bring it to me. 5. I like 
potatoes, whether (be they) fried or boiled. 6. I wish to send 
this postal card to a small town in Castile. How much will 


it cost me? 7. This dish is composed of sugar, butter, eggs and 
milk. 8. Last night we dined in the open air. 9. Walk (go) 
somewhat more slowly. 10. Have you never seen the sea? 
ii. .What surprised me was that there were no automobiles in the 
streets. 12. On every corner one finds a letter-box. 13. Every 
man ought to know how to boil potatoes. 14. It snowed all last 
week. 15. I have not bought anything except the most necessary 
things. 16. St. Joseph and St. John were two very holy men. 
17. Does it matter much to you? 18. Mr. Fernandez is a great 
doctor. 19. It lacks twenty minutes of nine. 20. How much time 
do you intend to spend in the country? 21. They were not long 
in returning. 22. A friend of mine invited me to visit him 
about the end of February. 23. What a pretty foreign stamp. 
24. She asked me to postpone my departure until the middle of 
December. 25. The object of these instructions is to teach you 
to do these things well. 26. In midsummer all the rich people 
leave the city. 27. Look at the sky. What a black cloud ! 28. For- 
tunately all tailors do not send their bills so often. 29. This fish 
is the worst I ever ate. 30. Every time that it thunders it lightens 
too. 31. Do you think it will freeze to-night? 32. I did not 
know whether (si) I was on the right road to the post-office or 
not. 33. Whether it freeze or not, we shall not be cold. 34. Let's 
see that calendar. 35. There is always snow on those mountains 
yonder. 36. Will you be so kind as to mail these packages? 
37. I would do it willingly but I have no stamps, and as you know, 
there is no tobacco-store near here where I can buy them. 38. Does 
it make any difference to you whether (que with subjunctive) we 
take a ride or go to walk? 39. Why have you your best hat on? 
40. Bring me another fork. This one is not very clean. 41. The 
guests have been waiting at the outer door for five minutes. Why 
don't you go down and (6 with infinitive) open it? 42. May I 
give you another slice of ham? 43. My mother had been absent 
for a fortnight. 44. May all your birthdays be happy ones. 
45 Nevertheless we see each other from time to time. 46. I saw 
him sit down under the tree. 47. The thermometer indicates eight 
degrees of frost. 48. The words pats, campo and tierri resemble 
each other, but they do not mean the same thing. 49. Since we 
have been here it has not rained once. 



207. Passive Voice. Theoretically there is a complete 
passive conjugation of the verb (see 503), whose forms con- 
sist of the various forms of the auxiliary ser and the past 
participle of the verb to be conjugated. The past participle 
is inflected like an adjective to agree with the subject in 
gender and number. 

Soy querido. I am loved. 

Hemos sido olvidados. We have been forgotten. 

Las ninas son castigadas. The girls are punished. 

a. After a passive verb, "by" is generally expressed by por, 
but it may be expressed by de if the action described is not physical 
in character. 

Los ninos son castigados por el maestro. The children are 
punished by the teacher. 

Hemos sido olvidados de nuestros amigos. We have been for- 
gotten by our friends. 

208. Passive Absolute Construction. An inflected 
past participle agreeing with a noun or pronoun is often 
found taking the place of a passive verb introduced by a 
temporal or concessive conjunction (after, when, since, etc). 
Such past participle constructions stand first in the sentence. 

Plecho esto. When this had been done. 

Aprendida la lection. After the lesson had been learned. 

Facturados los bai'tles. As soon as the trunks had been checked. 

209. Estar with the Past Participle. In a construc- 
tion very similar to the passive, estar is used as auxiliary 
instead of ser, with an inflected past participle. This is not 
a true passive, since it expresses, not an act performed, but 
the condition in which something (somebody) is found. 

Esta habitation estd mal calentada. This room is poorly heated 
(i.e., in a poorly heated condition). 

a. Compare the following true passive. 

La habitaci6n es calentada por la chimenea. The room is heated by the 
fireplace. (Stress is laid on the act of heating.) 


210. Reflexive Substitute for the Passive. The true 
passive is really little used except in the past tenses. If 
possible the Spaniard uses instead, an active verb, or a re- 
flexive substitute. The simplest type of this reflexive sub- 
stitute is that already mentioned in 79 b. When that which 
is acted upon is an inanimate object, it becomes the subject 
of the verb, which agrees with it in number. By the use of 
the reflexive object se, the subject is represented as acting 
upon itself. 

El espanol se habla en Espana. Spanish is spoken in Spain. 
Muclias lenguas se hablan en Europa. Many languages are 
spoken in Europe. 

a. With this personal reflexive substitute (so-called because 
the reflexive verb has an expressed subject), the agent may be ex- 
pressed as with the true passive. 

El espanol se habla por los espafioles. Spanish is spoken by 
the Spaniards. 

211. Impersonal Reflexive Substitute for the Pas- 
sive. When an animate being is represented as acted upon, 
it is made the object of the reflexive verb, which is always 
singular and impersonal. With this construction no agent 
may be expressed. 

No se te cree. You are not believed. 

No se cree a los nifios. The children are not believed. 

5V la invito. She was invited. 

a. The reflexive verb may take both a direct and an indirect 

5V nos presto dos paraguas. We were loaned two umbrellas. 
5V me lo dice. I am told so (it). 

212. Dejar. Already used in the sense of "to leave," 
or "to allow," dejar, when followed by de and an infinitive 
may mean "to leave off," or "to fail to." 

No dejare de seguir sus instrucciones. I shall not fail to fol- 
low your instructions. 

No deje yd. de estudiar mientras que estt aiisente. Don t leave 
off studying while I am away. 


213. Synonyms. To remember. Acordarse de and 

recordar both mean "to call ,to mind," "to recall." Re- 
cordar alone is used with the meaning of "to remind of." 
(Both are R-ch. Class 1). 

No me acuerdo de la palabra. I don't remember the word. 

Rccucrdo que aqucl ano fui a Paris. I recall that I went to 
Paris that year. 

Vd. me recuerda mi pobre marido. You remind me of my poor 

Permitame que le recuerde su deber. Allow me to remind you 
of your duty. 

214. Physical Characteristics. Tener and the defi- 
nite article are often used in Spanish in describing- physical 
characteristics or temporary physical condition, where in 
English we use "to be" with an adjective, or "to have" with 
the indefinite article. 

Vd. tiene siempre la boca abierta. Your mouth is always open. 
Tengo la cara encendida. My face is flushed. 
Tiene la mono pequena. He has a small hand. 

a. If tthe condition described is not temporary, and the object 
of tener is a plural noun, the definite article may be omitted. 
Carmen tiene ojos negros. Carmen has black eyes. 

215. Idiomatic. 

guardar cama, to stay in bed. pierda Vd. cuidado, don't worry. 

tin fuerte constipado, a hard una fuerte tos, a hard cough. . 

cold. cosa de cuidado, a thing to wor- 

cosa de peligro, a dangerous ry about. 

matter. tener calentura, to be feverish. 

tomar el pulso, to feel the pulse me duele la mono, my hand 

tener miedo, to be afraid. hurts. 

tener cuidado, to be careful. estar enfermo del corazdn, to 

/ Cuidado! Look out! have heart trouble. 


agudo, sharp, acute. casi, almost. 

apetito, appetite. constipado, a cold. 

botica, drug-store. constiparse, to catch cold. 

cabeza, head. consultar, to consult. 

caldo, broth. corazon, m., heart. 

calentura, fever. cucharadita, teaspoonful. 

capa, cape. cuidado, care, anxiety. 

cara, face. curar, to cure, care for. 


doctor, Doctor (a title). miembro, member, limb. 
doler, to ache, pain, hurt, (R- oido, hearing (the sense) 

ch. I). peligro, danger. 

dolor, ache, pain, grief. perder, to lose (R-ch. IV 

durante, prep., during. pulso, pulse. 
encendido, inflamed, heated, recado, message. 

flushed. receta, receipt, prescription. 

entero, entire, whole. remedio, remedy. 

estdmago, stomach. resfriado, a cold. 

estornudar, to sneeze. resultado, result, outcome. 

excesivo, excessive, extreme. salvor, to save. 

horrible, terrible, horrible. sufrir, to suffer, to bear. 

lengua, tongue. telcfono, telephone. 

mandar, to send, command. telefonar, to telephone. 

tnarido, husband. tos, f., cough. 

miedo, fear. toser, to cough. 


a. (Da. Manuela es el ama de una casa de huespedes.) 

La he llamado a Vd., Da. Manuela, porque me siento muy malo. 
Desearia que se mandase un recado al despacho diciendo que hoy 
no podre ir. Se lo agradecere infinite. 

Se hara en seguida. iQue tiene Vd. ? ^Le duele 'la cabeza? 

Me duele excesivamente. Ayer sail sin capa, y antes de llegar 
a la oficina empezo a Hover, y creo que me constipe (que he cogido 
un resfriado). Me acoste anoche con dolores en todos los miem- 
bros, y he tosido y estornudado mucho durante la noche. He 
pasado casi toda la noche sin dormir. 

i No quiere que le traiga algo caliente, una taza de te 6 de 

Gracias. No tengo apetito. iVive cerca de aqui algun medico? 

Ninguno bueno; pero si Vd. desea consultar un medico, llamare 
por telefono al nuestro, el Doctor Fernandez, y si estuviere (esta) 
en ca?a no tardara diez minutos en llegar, pues siempre hace sus 
visitas en automovil. Pero D. Jose, eso que tiene Vd. no es nada. 
Vd. tendra solamente un fuerte constipado. j Hombre ! i Que bien 
me acuerdo de la ultima enfermedad de mi pobre marido. Aquello 
si fue horrible. Durante un ano entero estuvo enfermo del corazon 
y del estomago. Sufrio agudos dolores. Los mejores medicos de 
la ciudad trataron de salvarle, y se le dio muchos remedies, pero 
todo sin resultado. Se murio el ano pasado. Hacia mucho tiempo 
ya que habia perdido casi por completo el oido. Lo peor es que 
el pobre tenia tanto miedo de morir. 

Pero ique estoy haciendo? Si no dejo de hablar de enferme- 


dades va Vd. a ponerse peor. Voy corriendo a telefonar al despacho 
y al medico. 

(El medico entra despues de un rato.) 

iQue le pasa, caballero? Dejeme tomarle el pulso. Mues- 
treme Vd. la lengua. Bastante sucia. Vd. tiene la cara encendida. 
A ver lo que. indica el termometro. 100 grades. Vd. tiene calen- 
tura. pero no sera cosa de cuidado. Guardando cama, en un par 
de dias se pone bueno. Mande Vd., Sra. ama, preparar esta receta 
en la botica, y dele al enfermo una cucharadita cada tres horas. 
No debe comer hoy, pero dele Vd. agua cuando la pida. Vuelvo por 
la tarde para ver como lo esta pasando. Hasta entonces, pues. 

b. iPara que ha llamado D. Jose al ama? 

iDesde cuando se siente malo? 

iCual fue la causa del constipado que ha cogido? 

iQue quiere traerle el ama? 

iDonde le duele a D. Jose? 

iComo ha pasado la noche? 

i Por que no quiere tomar nada? 

iSe va Da. Manuela en seguida a telefonar al despacho? ique 
hace pues? 

iQue le recuerda la enfermedad de su marido? 

iDe que murio su marido? 

iVive todavia el marido de Da. Manuela? 

i Cree Vd. que le sea interesante a D. Jose oir hablar de las 
enfennedades del marido de la buena senora? 

,; Cuanto tarda el medico ? 

iTarda ella mucho en dejar de hablar? 

iQue hace el medico cuando entra? 

i Cuanto tiempo tendra el enfermo que guardar cama? 

iCuantos dias tardara en ponerse bueno? 

iDonde se preparan las recetas de los medicos? 

iComo se llaman los hombres que curan a los enfermos? 

iComo se llama la enfermedad de D. Jose? 

i Tiene miedo de morir? 

.jEstara peor manana que hoy? 

i Quiere Vd. que le de algun recado a su amigo cuando le vea? 

i Se acuerda Vd. de lo que quiere decir resfriado? 

;No me oye Vd., 6 ha perdido el oido, 6 no me entiende? 




alma, soul. 

anterior, fore, anterior. 
arteria, artery. 
barba, chin, beard. 
brazo, arm. 

bigote, m., moustache. 
calvo, bald. 
cerebro, brain. 
tie go, blind, blind person. 
co/0, lame, lame person. 
comun, common. 
contener, to contain (see 543). 
crdneo, skull. 
cuello, collar, neck. 
cuerpo, body. 
cutis, m., skin. 
debit, weak. 
dedo, finger. 

dedo anular, ring-finger. 
dedo del corazon, middle finger. 
dedo del pie, toe. 
dedo indice, index finger. 
dedo menique, little finger. 
dedo pulgar, thumb. 
dedo pulgar del pie, big toe. 
diente, m., tooth. 
digerir, to digest (R-ch. II). 
encarnado, red. 

espalda, back (in plu., shoul- 

espinaso, spinal column. 
frente, f., forehead. 
garganta, throat. 
gordo, fat, stout. 
gusto, taste (the sense). 
habla, speech. 


higado, liver. 

hueso, bone. 

humano, human. 

inferior, lower, inferior. 

intestinos, intestines. 

labio, lip. 

manco, one-armed. 

medula espinal, spinal-cord. 

mover (se}, to move (R-ch. I) 

mudo, mute, dumb, silent. 

musculo, muscle. 

naris, f., nose. 

nlfato, smell (sense of). 

ore/a, ear. 

organo, organ. 

palma, palm. 

pecho, breast, chest. 

pelo, hair. 

pierna, leg. 

planta, plant, sole. 

posterior, hinder, rear, back. 

pulmones, lungs. 

pufio, fist, hand-writing. 

respiracidn, f., breathing. 

respirar, to breathe. 

sangre, f., blood. 

sentido, sense. 

sordo, deaf, dull. 

tacto, feeling (sense of). 

franco, trunk (of body or tree). 

tuerto, one-eyed. 

uso, use. 

vena, vein. 

vientre, belly, stomach. 

vital, vital. 


iDe quc se compone la mayor parte del cuerpo humano? 
,;C6mo se llaman las partes principales del cuerpo? 
iCuantos brazos tenemos? 

* This lesson may be omitted if desired. 


iConio se Hainan los miembros con que andamos? 

iCuales son los principales organos vitales? 

iComo se llama la parte exterior del cuerpo? ila mano 
cerrada? ila parte interior de la mano? ila parte inferior del 
pie? ila parte que esta entre el tronco y la cabeza? ila parte que 
contiene la medula espinal? ila parte que contiene el cerebro? 
ila parte superior de la cara? ila parte inferior de la cara? ila 
parte anterior del tronco? ila parte posterior del tronco? ila 
parte anterior y superior del tronco? 

iCual es el nombre del pelo que cubre la barba? ique cubre 
el labio superior? 

iDe que esta cubierta la cabeza? 

iComo llamamos al hombre que ha perdido el uso de los ojos, 
6 que no ha visto nunca? ial hombre que no tiene sino un ojo? 
ial que tiene solamente un brazo? ial que no oye bien? ial que 
no anda bien? ial que no tiene el uso de la lengua? 

iQue es un cojo? iun mudo? iun sordo? iun manco? iun 
tuerto? iun ciego? 

iComo se puede conocer al hombre fuerte? 

i Para que sirven los pulmones? ilos labios y la lengua? ilos 

iPor donde corre la sangre? 

iCual es el color de la sangre? 

iCuales son los cinco sentidos? 

iTenemos todos sentido comun? 

iCuales son los organos de la vista? idel oido? idel tacto? 

iCual es el organo del habla (de la palabra) ? idel gusto? idel 

iCon cual de los organos digerimos lo que comemos? 

i Para que sirve el cerebro ? 

i Donde estan la's partes vitales? 

iDe donde viene la voz? 

iMe hace Vd. el favor de mencionar los nombres de los cinco 

iComo se llaman los huesos de la boca? 

iEs gordo y fuerte 6 debil y delgado su hermano de Vd. ? 

iComo se llama esto? 

Y el alma, i donde esta? 



216. Omission of Indefinite Article. The indefinite 
article is more definite in meaning than the English indefi- 
nite article. It is consequently omitted in many expressions 
of a general nature, where in English the article would be 
used. The student should note such omissions, as it is im- 
possible to make a rule which will cover all cases. 

tener barba, to have a beard. haccrse medico, to become a 

tener novio, to have a beau. doctor. 

esttidiar para abogado, to study buscar casa, to look for a house. 

for a lawyer. tomar casa, to take a house. 

estar de visita, to be on a visit. salir sin abrigo, to go out with- 
out an overcoat. 

217. Verbs in -uir. For the conjugation of concluir 
and other verbs in -uir, see 523. 

218. Concluir, "to conclude," is a synonym of acabar 
and terminar, in so far as it means "to end," "finish," "ter- 
minate." It also means "to decide," although "to decide to," 
is decidir a. Used in the past reflexively, concluir has the 
passive meanings "to be all gone," "to be all over," "to 
have come to an end." 

jHa concluido Vd.f Are you through? 

He concluido que no debemos hacerlo. I have concluded that 
we should not do it. 

Se ha concluido el pan. The bread is all gone. 

219. Mayor and menor are the irregular comparatives 
of grande and pequeno, and equivalent to mas grande and 
mas pequeno. When applied to persons they mean "older" 
and "younger." 

Juan es mayor que Maria. John is older than Mary. 
Maria es menor que Juan. Mary is younger than John. 

a. The superlatives of mayor and menor are el mayor and 
el menor. 


Juan es cl menor de mis hijos. John is the youngest of my 

Juan es el mayor de los dos. John is the elder of the two. 

220. Synonyms. Joven, "young," and viejo, "old," 
are generally applied to what is really young or old, without 
the idea of comparison. Antiguo means "old" in the sense 
of "former," "of long standing," or "antique." 

Un hombre joven; a young man. 

Un libra viejo; an old book. 

Un antiguo compailcro mio; an old chum of mine. 

221. The . . '. the. These correlatives, used before 
comparatives, are expressed by cuanto (-a, -os, -as) . . . 
tanto (-a, -os, -as). 

Cuantos mas libros tengo, tantos mas deseo. The more books 
I have, the more I want. 

Cuanto mas gana, tanto menos gasta. The more he earns the 
less he spends. 


abogado, lawyer. 

aficionado (a), -fond (of), en- 
thusiastic (about). 

Alejandro, Alexander. 

Antonio, Anthony. 

Ana, Anna. 

anteojos, (plu.) eyeglasses. 

arruinar, to ruin, spoil. 

calcetines, hose. 

casar, to marry (transitive). 

casarse con, to marry. 

catedrdtico, professor. 

ciencia, science. 

contestar (d), to answer. 

conque, and so. 

Cordoba, Cordova, a city in 
southern Spain. 

cuanto (relative), how much, 
as much as, all that. 

euro, m., parish priest. 

chico, -a, small (person), boy, 

dedicarse (a), to devote oneself 

dentista, m., dentist. 

en fin, in short. 

eqnivocarse, to be mistaken, to 
make a mistake, (see 507). 

/En mi vida! Never in my life! 

escoger, to pick, choose (see 

especial, especial. 

estudio, study. 

figurarse, to imagine. 

/Figurese Vd.l Just imagine. 

fuera de, except, excepting. 

ganar, to gain, win, earn. 

Granada, a city in southern 

hacerse, to become (f. e., to 
make of oneself). 

idioma, m., language. 

lapis, m., pencil. 

listo, bright, smart, clever (when 
used with ser}. 

matemdticas, (f. plu.), mathe- 

medicina, medicine. 

mesa de escribir, writing table, 

nacer, to be born (see 513,548). 


novio, beau, fiance, bridegroom, soltero, -a, unmarried person. 

novia, sweetheart, fiancee, bride. tinta, ink. 

obedecer (&), to obey (see 513). tintcro, inkstand. 

ocuparse (en), to busy oneself. ;Vaya si lo es! I should say 

papcl, m., paper. he is ! 

papel secante, blotting-paper. viudo, -a, widower, widow. 

profesion, f., profession. vice versa, vice versa. 

regreso, return. ;Ya lo creol I should say so. 

si, why. 


a. i Me permite Vd. Da. Manuela sentarme a su mesa de es- 
cribir? Quiero contestar (responder) a las muchas cartas que he 
recibido durante mi enfermedad, y se ha concluido la tinta de mi 

Sientese Vd., D. Jose. En la mesa encontrara Vd. plumas, 
lapiz, papel secante, en fin cuanto le haga falta. Mientras que Vd. 
esta escribiendo, voy a ocuparme en hacer calcetines para el chico. 

iPara Antonio? \ Que chico mas listo ! 

; Vaya si lo es ! En mi vida he visto otro tan aficionado a los 
estudios. No quiere hacer mas que leer y estudiar. j Figiirese Vd. ! 
Ya he tenido que comprarle unos anteojos. -Si se esta arruinando 
la vista con tanto estudiar. Cuanto mas le digo que no estudie por 
la noche, tanto menos me obedece. Es que ha escogido la profesion 
de su padre, el que durante muchos anos fue catedratico en la 

iEntre sus estudios hay algunos a que se dedica especialmente ? 

Entre todos prefiere las matematicas y las ciencias naturales. 
Todos le gustan fuera de la gramatica y el estudio de las lenguas 
(los idiomas). He notado que aquellos de mis hijos que han podido 
aprender facilmente las matematicas, no han tenido cabeza para los 
idiornas, y vice versa. 

iConque Vd. tiene otros hijos? 

; Ya lo creo ! Tres, nada menos. Dos mujeres y un hombre. 
Antonio es el menor. Nacio el 8 de octubre del 1883. Estamos en 
septiembre del 99, de manera que el mes que viene tendra quince 
anos. No, me he equivocado. Tendra 16 anos. Ana mi hija mayor 
tiene 20 anos mas que Antonio. Hace muchos anos que esta casada 
con un abogado, y vive en Cordoba. Alejandro, casado tambien, 
y viudo desde hace dos anos, despues de empezar a estudiar la 
medicina, concluyo que ya haLia demasiados medicos malos, y se 
fue a los Estados Unidos y se hizo dentista, y muy bueno Desde 
su regreso a Espana, esta ganando mucho dinero. Sin embargo 
siento que no haya querido estudiar para cura, pero asi son los 
chicos de hoy. 


iY la otra hija? 

Rosa, menor que Ana y mayor que Alejandro, es soltera, pero 
tiene novio, y creo que se casara el ano proximo. Esta ahora en 
Granada, de visita en casa de una tia, hermana mia. 

b. iComo es que D. Jose tiene que escribir en el despacho del 

iQue se necesita para escribir una carta? 

iEn que se ocupa Da. Manuela? 

iDe que manera le molesta a D. Jose mientras que esta tra- 
tando de escribir unas cartas? 

iEs facil figurarse un chico tan aplicado como el hijo menor 
de Da. Manuela? 

Cuando uno tiene debil la vista, ique tiene que ponerse para 
ver mas claro? 

iQue profesion ha escogido Vd. ? ,;la de maestro? 

iComo se llaman los maestros que ensenan en las universidades? 

iSe ha dedicado Vd. especialmente al estudio de los idiomas? 
l& que se dedica, pues? 

iCuantos hijos tiene Da. Manuela? icomo se llaman? 

iQue es un soltero? <;un viudo? ^un novio? 

i Tiene Vd. hermanos menores? <;son hombres 6 mujeres? 

iEstudia Vd. para abogado? ipara medico? 

iComo se llama el mayor de sus hermanas? 

iCuanto ganan los dentistas por hora? 

iCual es la diferencia entre casar, y casarse con? 


Remark. Lesson XXXVIII is not included in this review. Review 
lessons XXXVII and XXXIX. 

Turn into Spanish, i. Do you think I am afraid? 2. My 
elder brother does not like his profession. 3. There is no grief 
equal to that of a mother. 4. Do you know a good receipt for 
making bread? 5. I gave him the message by telephone. 6. She 
married a man seven years younger than she. 7. I should like to 
have a beard. 8. We do not know what his motive is (subj.). 
9. Excepting an uncle of mine, I don't know anybody who has 
been in Paris. 10. The farm having been sold, we had to come 
to the city. u. The great day is over. 12. The less I have to 
study, the better I like it. 13. I was not consulted concerning the 
price of the lands. 14. It is natural that you should sneeze a good 


deal. 15. Do you remember the number of the house? 16. Please 
don't begin to cry. 17. He said that I reminded him so much of 
his poor wife. You know he has been a widower for several years. 
18. Dr. Suarez ordered the sick child to be given a teaspoonful 
of water every five minutes. 19. I shall have to punish you, al- 
though it hurts me more than it does you. 20. I was born (past 
definite) on the first day of January, 42 years ago. 21. Who was 
caring for him when he died? 22. He died of hunger, I have 
been told. 23. He would have consulted a doctor if he had known 
some good one. 24. How did Anna catch cold, do you suppose? 
25. Let us make an end. 26. He was ruined by the lawyers. 
27. The napkins are completely ruined. 28. Is there any danger? 

29. During our stay in Cordova, we ate beefsteak only once. 

30. They were married by a priest. 31. What a horrible sight! 
32. He is not permitted to devote himself to his studies. 33. I 
hope you have not made a mistake. 34. So then, he has a sweet- 
heart, has he? 35. Don't fail to telephone to the drug store for 
(por) the stamps. 36. How (cudnto) my foot hurts! You imag- 
ine it. 37. When I have my glasses on, do I not look like some 
professor? 38. I can't imagine such a thing. 39. All good boys 
and girls (chicos) obey their parents. 40. His eyes are shut, but 
his mouth is open. 41. I told him I would lend him as much as 
he needed. 


222. Use of Imperative Mode. Review 142. The 
imperative is used to express intimate positive commands 
only. Intimate negative commands are expressed by the 
second persons singular and plural of the present subjunc- 

habla, hablad, speak; no hables, no hableis, don't speak. 

responde, responded, answer; no respondas, no responddis, don't 

escribe, escribid, write ; no escribas, no escribdis, don't write. 

a. In positive commands the object pronouns are attached 
to the verb. This necessitates in certain cases a written accent 

hablame, compramclo, habladle, comprddmelo. 

b. In negative commands the object pronouns come before 
the verb. 

No me hables. Don't speak to me. 
No se to digdis. Don't tell him so. 


c. Before the reflexive object os, the imperative plural drops 
its final d. 

ociipaos, busy yourselves. 

223. Irregular Imperatives. Most irregular verbs are 
regular in the imperative plural, but many are irregular in 
the singular. Study the imperatives in 515, 520-523, 525, 

224. Prometer, "to promise," may be followed by the 
infinitive or the indicative. It takes the indirect object of 
the person, and the direct object of the thing promised. 

Prometcme que me comprards a/go. Promise me that you will 
buy me something. 

Me prometio que volveria temprano. He promised me he would 
return soon. 

Te prometo volver temprano. \ j . j m 

Te prometo que volvere temprano. \ 

225. Volver followed by a and an infinitive means "to 
do (whatever the infinitive expresses) again." 

No volvere d hacerlo. I shall not do it again. 
No he vuclio a verle. I have not seen him again. 

226. Jugar, "to play," is always followed by a before 
the name of a game. See 516. 

Los ninos estdn jugando d la pelota. The children are playing 

226 A. For reir, "to laugh," and caer, "to fall, see 

522 a, and 528. 


acd, adv., here (used, like alia contar, to count, tell, relate (R- 

with verb of motion). ch. I). 

amar, to love. desobcdecer, to disobey (see 
I Ay! Oh! Ouch! Alas! 513). 

beso, kiss. detrds_ de, prep., behind. 

burlarse de, to make fun of. cnsuciar, to dirty, make dirty. 

caerse, to fall down. esconder (se), to hide. 

camlsa, shirt. Federico, Frederick. 

caso, case, affair, circumstance. feo, homely, ugly, wicked. 


hacer caso &, to pay attention to. /For Dios! exclamation. 

limpiar, to clean. guitar, to remove, take off. 

mcntir, to lie (R-ch. II). reirsc (de), to laugh (at). 

mentira, lie, lying. romper, to break, tear (see 549). 

pantalon, m., trousers, breeches, saltacarnero, leap-frog (literal- 

pecado, sin. ly, leap-sheep). 

pegar, to strike, hit, stick (see toro, bull (in plural, "bull-fight- 

507 b). ing"). 

pelota, ball. verguenza, shame. 

perdon, m., pardon. tener verguenza, to be 

pillo, young scamp, rowdy. ashamed. 


a. Hija, ipor que lloras? Cuentaselo todo a tu madre. 
Federico me pego y me llamo fea. 

No llores. No le hagas caso a tu hermano. No eres fea. Fe- 
derico, no te escondas detras de la puerta. Te estoy viendo. No 
te rias. iTe estas burlando de tu madre? Ven aca, mal muchacho. 
I No tienes verguenza? <;No sabes que los niiios debeis amaros? 
Pero, ;que sucio estas! Y ipor que te has quitado los zapatos? 
iComo te has roto el pantalon y ensuciado la camisa limpia? 

No se. 

Federico, dime la verdad. No mientas. Sabes que la mentira 
es un pecado muy feo. ^No has estado jugando a la pelota 6 a los 
toros con los pillos de la calle? 

Estabamos jugando a saltacarnero, cuando me cai, y se me ha 
roto el pantalon. 

Te he prohibido jugar en la calle, y tendre que castigarte. 

; Ay, mama, por Dios ! No me castigue Vd. Le prometo que 
no volvere a desobedecerla. 

Pues por esta vez te perdono. Ahora vete a tu cuarto a lim- 
piarte bien ; pero antes debes pedir perdon a tu hermana y darle 
un beso. 

b. iPor que esta la nina llorando? 
I A quien lo cuenta todo? 

iLes duele mas a las ninas que se las pegue, 6 que se las llame 

iQue le dice su madre a la niiia? 

,;D6nde trata Federico de esconderse? 

iQue hace detras de la puerta? 

iTienc mucha verguenza? 

,;Le dice la verdad a su madre? <ique hace pues? 

^En que estado se encuentra? 

^Donde estaba jugando cuando se le rompio el pantalon? 


que estaba jugando? 

ha visto Vd. nunca jugar a los toros? 
iQue es mentir? 

iQue le promete Federico a su madre? 
iPor que se lo promete? 
iA donde le manda su madre? ipara que? 
iQue pide a su hermana antes? 
iQue le da ella? 

iA que juegan los ninos espanoles? 

iCual es el dia en que no se puede comer carne sin pecado? 
iHacen caso los ninos a las ordenes de sus padres? 
i For que se ha quitado Federico los zapatos ? 
iQue hay que pegar en el sobre de una carta antes de echarla 
al correo? 


227. Spanish Money. The unit is the peseta, divided 
into loo centimes. Five pesetas make a duro or peso. 
The copper coins (monedas de cobre) are the piece of 5 
centimes (perra chica) and the 10 centime piece (perra 
grande). Silver coins (monedas de plata) are the media 
peseta, peseta, dos pesetas and duro. Bank notes are of 
25, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 pesetas. Exchange is cambio, 
loose change suelto, and change for a coin or bill, la vuelta 
or las vueltas. In Mexico and Spanish America generally, 
the unit is the centavo (= one cent). In Spain the real 
(= 25 centimes) is often used in reckoning price, but there 
is no coin to correspond to it. 

228. Idiomatic. Price. 

Estas naranjas se venden a peseta la docena. These oranges 
are sold at a peseta a dozen. 

jCudnto vale estof Dos reales la libra. What is this worth? 
Two reals a pound. 

jCudnto pide Vd. por esto? Un duro la vara. What do you ask 
for this? A dollar a yard. 

Uvas de a real la libra. Grapes at a real a pound. 


229. Suffix -ero. The suffix -ero, applied to nouns, 
forms derivatives indicating the person in charge of, the 
dealer in, or manufacturer of. 

puerta, porter o; cache, cochero; libra, librero (bookseller) ; 
zapato, zapalcro (cobbler or shoe-dealer) ; reloj, relojero (watch- 
maker) ; cuchillo, cuchillero (cutler) ; espccia (spice) ; especiero 
(grocer) ; vaca, vaquero (cow-boy). 

230. Suffix -eria. The suffix eria indicates generally 
a place where something is manufactured or sold, or a trade 
or business. 

libreria, book-store ; zapateria, shoe-store ; relojcria, watchmak- 
er's ; cuchilleria, cutlery store ; especieria, grocery. 

231. Diminutive Suffixes. These are very commonly 
applied to nouns and adjectives, and even to adverbs. The 
commonest are -ito, -illo, -uelo (-ita, -ilia, -uela). 

Ubrito, little book ; chiquillo, little child ; mosuelo, young chap : 
prontito, quite promptly. 

232. Either . . . or, in a positive sentence is 6 . . . 
6. In a negative sentence, ni . . . ni, which also ex- 
presses neither . . . nor. Ni further expresses and not. 
Tampoco means neither or not either. It is generally 
found after a negative, but it may come first in the sen- 
tence. It is used instead of no in replying negatively to the 
second of two questions. 

Vendra 6 esta noche, 6 manana temprano. He will come either 
to-night or to-morrow early. 

No hemos tornado ni chocolate ni te. We have not taken either 
chocolate or tea. (We have taken neither chocolate nor tea.) 

No tengo diner o, ni'espero tenerlo. I have no money, nor do 
I hope to (and I do not hope to) have any. 

Yo no quiero ir tampoco. I don't want to go either. 

jNo tiene yd. diner of Ni yo tampoco. Haven't you any mon- 
ey? Nor have I either. 

tQuiere Vd. pan? No. jTostadas? Tampoco. 

a. O, "or," becomes u before a word beginning with o or ho. 
mujeres u hombres, women or men. 

233. For traducir, "to translate," and other verbs in 
-ucir see 529. 




kilo = kilogramo. 
hortaliza, vegetable. 
libra, pound. 
limon, m., lemon. 
lomo, loin. 

maduro, ripe, mature. 
manzana, apple. 
melocoton, m., peach. 
melon, m., musk- melon 
naranja, orange. 
pescaderia, fish-market. 
pescadero, fisherman, fish-deal- 

podrido, rotten. 
selecto, choice, select. 
tendero, store-keeper. 
true ha, trout. 
uv'a, grape. 
vender, to sell. 
verde, green, unripe. 

bacalao, codfish. 

bazar, m., bazaar, department 


carniceria, meat-market. 
carnicero, butcher. 
cerdo, pig, hog. 
correr, to be current. 
crecer, to grow (see 513). 
crudo, unripe, raw, crude. 
docena, dozen. 
especie, f., species, kind. 
fino, fine, delicate, excellent. 
fresa, strawberry. 
frijoles, beans (Mexico). 
genero, genus, gender, kind. 
generos, dry-goods. 
granada, pomegranate. 
harina, flour. 
huerta, truck-garden. 
jardin, m., garden. 
judias, beans (Spain). 


a. Vamos primero al mercado. Despues iremos al bazar y a 
las tiendas de generos . . . 

Hoy necesito una cantidad de cosas. Primero, frijoles (judias) 
de los mejores. 

Los tengo muy finos. 

Haga el favor de mostrarlos. Verdad que son finos. iA 
cuanto se venden? 

A peseta el kilo. (A dos reales la libra). 

No los tiene Vd. mas baratos? 

Si, pero no son tan selectos. 

Bueno. Mandeme a casa cinco kilos. iQue clase de frutas 
tiene Vd.? 

Tenemos naranjas, manzanas, melocotones, limones, uvas, gra- 
nadas, y melones. 

Muchos de estos melocotones esta"n verdes, otros estan podridos. 

Escoja Vd. los mejores. 

Me quedo con estos seis. Tambien media docena de limones 
y un melon. 

iNo necesita Vd. naranjas ni uvas? 

Hoy no. 


Tampoco . . . 


Ahora a la carniceria, donde comprare un lomo de cerdo para 
asar, y entonces a la especieria a comprar harina, y bacalao. 

b. i Donde compramos el pescado? ila carne? ilos zapatos? 
iunreloj? iun cuchillo? ilos libros? 

iComo llamamos al hombre que vende libros? ique vende 
cuchillos? ique tiene vacas y toros? ique hace relojes? ique 
tiene una tienda de zapatos? ique vende carne? ique tiene una 
tienda cualquiera? 

iQue significa la palabra especieria? ipescaderia? i bazar? 

iQue palabra significa demasiado maduro? ino bastante ma- 

Deme Vd. los nombres de algunos pescados muy comunes. DC 
algunas frutas. 

iComo se llaman en Mejico las judias? 

iQue compramos en una libreria? ien el mercado? 

iCuales son las monedas de cobre que corren en Espafia? ilas 
de plata? 

iCuanto vale una peseta en moneda americana? 

iCuantos reales en una peseta? ien un peso? 

iCuantos centavos en un peso? 

iCual es el peso de este lomo? (iCuanto pesa este lomo?) 

i Tiene Vd. suelto? 

iQue frutas tenemos en esta estacion? 

i Donde crecen las hortalizas? ilas flores? 



234. Ir, caer and sentar are all used with the indirect 
object of the person, to mean "to be becoming," "to look 
well on." 

Este sombrero no le cae a Vd. This hat is not becoming to you. 

jMe va cste color? Does this color become me? 

El traje no le sentaba a ella. The dress didn't look well on her. 

235. Dimensions. There are three ways of giving di- 
mension. In two of them tenet is used with a noun of di- 
mension. In the third, an adjective of dimension is sub- 
stituted for the noun. 

La ventana tiene una anchura de cuatro pies. ~\ q^. , - , 
La ventana tiene cuatro pies de anchura. I Th f e wmow 1S f our 

La ventana tiene cuatro pies de ancho. 

a. In asking the dimension of an object, ser is used with the 
noun or adjective of dimension. 

iCual es la longitud de la casa? ) HQW , . g the house? 
iCual es el largo de la casa? \ 

b. Note the following: 

Una ventana de cuatro pies de anchura ~] 

(ancho). [-A window four feet wide. 

Una ventana ancha de cuatro pies. } 

235 A. Prepositions. The correct use of the preposi- 
tions is one of the most puzzling things in Spanish. This 
is particularly true of the prepositions that are used to com- 
plete the meaning of certain verbs, nouns and adjectives. 
Since it is impossible to acquire a knowledge of their use 
excepting by practice and observation, the student is urged 
to note in his reading any new phrases into which preposi- 
tions enter. 



abanico, fan. ni, even. 

algodon, m., cotton. pano, cloth (woolen). 

alhaja, jewel, thing of value. panuelo, handkerchief. 

altura, height. perla, pearl. 

anchura, width. profundidad, i., depth. 

asegurar, assure. pulgada, inch. 

collar, m., necklace. rebajar, to diminish, come down. 

divino, divine, lovely. regatear, to bargain, haggle. 

escaparate, m., show-window. ropa, clothes (collective). 

espesura, thickness ropa blanca, linen (clothes). 

estilarse, to be in style. ropa de cama, bed clothes. 

gastar, to spend, waste, wear. ropa interior, underclothes 

gris, gray. ropa sucia, soiled clothes 

grueso, big, thick. sdbana, sheet. 

hilo, thread, yarn, linen. tejido, anything woven, dress 

lana, wool. goods. 

legitimo, genuine, lawful, legiti- tejido de algodon, cotton goods. 

mate. tela, cloth, stuff. 

lienzo, linen cloth. toalla, towel. 

longitud, f., length. valer mas, to be better. 

manga, sleeve. vara, yard. 

metro, metre. vestido, dress, costume (traje) 
muestra, sample. 


a. i Tiene Vd. una seda gris igual a la muestra? 

Si senora. Aqui tiene Vd. una seda muy fuerte y muy bonita a 
duro la vara. 

Es mucho. 

Le aseguro a Vd. que no podra encontrar mas barato en todo 
Madrid un genero como este. 

Me gusta el color, y creo que me sentara muy bien, pero no me 
es posible gastar tanto p'or un vestido. Tampoco me gusta rega- 
tear. Conque ,jes el ultimo precio? 

Lo siento muchisimo, pero no puedo rebajar ni un centimo 
Este genero nos cuesta a nosotros, cuatro pesetas y media la vara 

iCuanto vale esta seda negra? 

Esta la puedo poner un poco mas barato. Cuatro pesetas. 

Deme Vd. diez y seis varas. Espere Vd. un momento. ^CuaJ 
es la anchura (el ancho) ? 

Tiene veinte y seis pulgadas. 

Entonces valdra mas cortar diez y ocho varas. Este ano hacen 
muy anchas las mangas. (Se estilan las mangas anchas.) 


iQuiere Vd. algo en panos 6 en lienzos? Tenemos tambien 
algunos algodones muy hermosos y de ultima novedad. 

Deseo unos panuelos de hilo para seiiora y unas sabanas. Casi 
las olvidaba. . . . 

Mire Vd., Luisa. j Que alhajas mas bonitas en este escaparate! 
iNo le parece que me sentaria divinamente aquel collar de perlas? 

Esta es una de las tiendas mas famosas de Madrid. Venden 
todas clases de objetos de oro y plata, encajes legitimos y abanicos 

b. iQue busca esta senora? 

iQue color de seda desea? 

i Por que no va a comprar la seda que el dependiente le muestra 

iQue significa regatear? 

,; Por que no le es posible al dependiente rebajar el precio del 

iCuanto hay que pagar por una buena seda negrai* 

iCuantas varas de paiio se necesita para hacer un vestido? 

iEste afio se estilan sombreros grandes 6 pequeiios? 

i De que se hacen los vestidos de caballero ? 

En vestidos de caballero, ique colores se estilan siempre? 

iDe que se hacen los mejores panuelos? 

iDe que se hace la ropa interior? <;las sabanas? 

jCuantas pulgadas hay en un pie? ,/en una vara? 

Cuando deseamos comprar hilo del color de una seda que 
tenemos en casa, ique hacemos? 

iEsta subiendo 6 bajando el precio del lienzo? 

<;C6mo se llama aquella parte del vestido que cubre el brazo? 

iQne se necesita para hacer la cama? 

jdial es la altura del edificio en que estamos? 



236. The Ordinal Numerals. The ordinals are given 
up to 20 only, as they are so rarely used above that point. 
They agree with the noun in gender and number. 

primer o ist. undecimo nth. 

scgundo ad. duodecimo I2th. 

tercero 3d. decimo tercio I3th. 

cuarto 4th. decimo cuarto I4th. 

quinto 5th. decimo quinto I5th. 

sexto or sesto 6th. decimo sexto i6th. 

septimo or setimo 7th. decimo septimo I7th. 

octavo 8th. decimo octavo i8th. 

novcno or nono Qth. decimo nono igth. 

decimo loth vigesimo 2Oth. 

a. In giving a numeral after a title, the ordinals are used up 
to decimo. After that the cardinals. The definite article is omitted. 
Felipe segundo (II), Philip the Second. 
Alfonso trece (XIII), Alphonso the Thirteenth. 

237. Noun. A noun that expresses what is possessed 
singly by each one of a group of similar individuals, is 
placed in the singular, though the plural would be used in 

Los ninos con cara alegre. The children with happy faces (one 

238. Definite Article used. The definite article is 
used before names of countries and persons that are modi- 
fied by an adjective. . 

La Espana moderna. Modern Spain. 

El caritativo Sr. S&nchez. Charitable Mr. Sanchez. 

239. Suffixes indicating Nationality. The common- 
est of these is -ano. Others are -eno, -ino, and es. As in 
English, the -proper suffix to use in a given case is to be 
learned by observation. Note the following: 

sevillano, granadino, madrileno, cordobes, peruano, chileno, me- 
jicano, argentino, panameno, cubano, puertoriqueno, filipino. 

240. Caber, "to be contained." See 527. 




aldea, village. 

aldeano, villager, peasant. 

amor, L, Jove. 

cajita, diminutive of caja. 

catedral, i., cathedral. 

centra, center. 

cerilla, wax match. 

construir, to build, construct 

(See 523). 

corte, i., court, capital. 
chaqueta, coat, jacket. 
dalar, to date. 
establecer, to found, establish 

(See 513). 

estrecho, narrow, tight. 
Felipe, Philip. 
fin, m., end. 
fosforo, match. 
grito, cry, shout. 
liabitante, inhabitant. 
iglesia, church. 

a la iglesia, to church. 

en la iglesia, at (in) church. 

Isidro, Isidore. 

juguete, m., toy, plaything. 

ladrillo, brick. 

limosna, alms. 

lugar, m., place, town. 

madera, wood. 

mendigo, beggar. 

moderno, modern. 

museo, museum. 

nombrar, to name. 

palacio, palace. 

plaza, square. 

publico, public. 

real, royal. 

reina, Queen. 

ritido, noise. 

sigh, age, century. 

terciopelo, velvet, plush, beaver. 

torero, bull-fighter. 

vecino, neighboring, neighbor. 

vestido de, dressed in, wearing. 


a. Madrid, capital de Espana, es una ciudad moderna de unos 
quinientos mil habitantes (almas). Su importancia data del siglo 
dieciseis (XVI) cuando el rey Felipe II establecio alii su corte. 

La corte tiene muchos hermosos edificios publicos y casas par- 
ticulares, muchas plazas, y muchos teatros e iglesias, pero no tiene 
catedral. La mayor parte de los edificios estan construidos de piedra 
6 de ladrillo. Entre los edificios publicos se puede nombrar la Biblio- 
teca Nacional, el Banco de Espana, el Museo de Pinturas, llamado 
tambien el museo del Prado, la Iglesia de San Isidro en la calle 
de Toledo, y el magnifico Palacio Real, que no tiene igual en 
toda Europa. 

El verdadero centre de la vida madrileiia es la plaza llamada 
la Puerta del Sol. Todo empieza, y todo tiene su fin alii En la 
Puerta del Sol hay siempre gente y ruido, a la una de la 
manana como al mediodia. Alii se oyen los gritos de los vende- 
dores de periodicos, de juguetes y de cajitas de cerillas y fosforos. 
Alii se puede ver a los aldeanos de los lugares vecinos, con la manta 
de lana y el ancho sombrero de terciopelo, y a los toreros vestidos 


de pantalon estrecho y chaqueta corta. Alii los mendigos piden a 
los caritativos una limosna "por el amor de Dios." 

b. Cual de los reyes de Espana establecio su corte en Madrid? 

iEn que siglo ocurrio esto? 

iEn que siglo estamos ahora? 

iCuantos habitantes tiene Madrid? <;Nueva York? <;esta ciu- 
dad? iel lugar en que Vd. nacio? 

iQue le hace falta a Madrid? 

iDe que se construyen las casas? 

Nombreme Vd. algunos edificios publicos de Madrid. 

iDonde se guardan ahora los libros del rey Felipe II 

iCuando se fue Vd. a la iglesia? 

iQuien es el rey actual de Espana? 

iCon quien se caso? 

iDonde se pueden ver las pinturas de Velazquez? 

,;Que plaza esta en el centro de Madrid? 

iQue se ve en la Puerta del Sol? ique se oye alii" 

iDe que se visten los toreros? 

iQue se compra para los ninos? 

iSabe Vd. como se contesta a un mendigo que nos pide una 
limosna? Se lo dire a Vd. Si no deseamos darle nada, 6 si no 
tenemos nada que darle, le decimos "Vaya Vd. con Dios, hermano." 
Si le damos algo, nos da las gracias en estas palabras, "Dios se lo 

iSe alegra Vd. de que hayamos llegado al fin de este libro? 


500. The purpose of the following sections is to group 
together for reference the facts about the forms of the 
Spanish verbs, both regular and irregular. For the regular 
verb it is necessary merely to repeat that all endings, with 
the exception of those of the future and conditional, are 
added to the stem of the infinitive (found by cutting off 
the final -ar, -er, or -ir of the infinitive), while the future 
and conditional endings are added to the whole infinitive. 

501. Endings of the Three Conjugations. 


-ando -ado 

> -iendo -ido 




























as teis 





























- -amos 









-ara -iera 

-aras -ieras 

-ara -iera 

-aramos -i^ramos 

-arais -ierais 

-aran -ieran 



























502. Compound Tenses. By way of illustrating the 
formation of compound tenses and forms, the following 
examples will suffice, though only the first person of each 
tense is given. The past participle of the verb to be conju- 
gated is unchanged in form. 

PERFECT INFINITIVE, haber comido, to have eaten. 

PRESENT PERFECT PARTICIPLE, habiendo comido, having eaten. 


PRESENT PERFECT, he comido, I have eaten. 
PLUPERFECT, habia comido, I had eaten. 
PAST DEFINITE PERFECT, hube comido, I had eaten. 
FUTURE PERFECT, habrt comido, I shall have eaten. 
CONDITIONAL PERFECT, habria comido, I should have eaten. 


PRESENT PERFECT, haya comido. 
FIRST PLUPERFECT, hubiese comido. 
SECOND PLUPERFECT, hubiera comido. 
FUTURE PERFECT, hubiere comido. 

503. Passive Voice. In connection with what is stated 
in 207, the following forms of the passive of amar, "to 
love," will suffice to show how the passive conjugation is 


made up of the forms of the auxiliary ser, followed by the 
past participle of the verb to be conjugated. 

INFINITIVE, ser amado, -a, -os, -as, to be loved. 
PRES. PART, siendo amado, -a, -os, -as, being loved. 
PRES. INDIC. ^031 amado, -a, I am loved. 

eres amado, -a, you are loved. 

c s amado, -a, he, she, it, is loved, you are loved. 

somos amados, -as, we are loved. 

sois amados, -as, you are loved. 

son amados, -as, they, you, are loved. 
PERFECT INDIC. he sido amado, -a, I have been loved. 

hemos sido amados, -as, we have been loved, etc. 

504. Progressive Conjugation. The progressive con- 
jugation made up of the forms of estar and the present 
participle (uninflected) of the verb to be conjugated, and 
mentioned in. 470 and 72, is theoretically complete. Not 
infrequently ir, "to go," and venir, "to come," are used in 
similar way with the present participle. 

estarcmos esperando, we shall be waiting. 
fuirnos andando, we went along. 

505. Orthographically Irregular Verbs. Review the 
general statement in 73. It is to be noted that these verbs 
are irregular to the eye, but not to the ear. There are, 
however, many irregular verbs that are incidentally ortho- 
graphical-changing. They will be treated in the proper 
place, and their peculiarities of spelling noted. 

506. The orthographically irregular verbs treated in 
507 and 508 all have stems ending in one of the consonant 
sounds discussed in the table in 5, which should be con- 
sulted in this connection. 

507. First Conjugation. 

(a) Verbs whose infinitive ends in -car change c to qu 
where the ending begins with e. 


SACAR, to take out. 
PAST DEF., IST SING., saque. 
PRES. SUBJ., saque, saques, saque, saquemos, saqutis, saquen. 

(b) Verbs in -gar insert u between the g and e in those 
forms where the ending begins with e. 

PAGAR, to pay. 

PAST DEF., IST SING., pague 
PRES. SUBJ., pague, pagues, etc. 

(c) Verbs in -guar place a diaeresis over the u before 
endings that begin with e. There are few of these verbs. 

AVERIGUAR, to verify. 
PAST DEF., IST SING., averigue 
PRES. SUBJ., averigue, averigues, etc. 

(d) Verbs in -zar change z to c before those endings 
which begin with e. 

CRUZAR, to cross. 
PAST DEF., IST SING., cruce 
PRES. SUBJ., cruce, cruces, etc. 

508. Second and Third Conjugations. 

(a) Verbs in -cer and -cir preceded by a consonant 
change c to z when the ending begins with a or o. 

VENCER, to conquer. 
PRES. SUBJ., venza, venzas, vensa, venzamos, venz&is, vensan. 

(b) Verbs in -cer and -cir preceded by a vowel are 
truly irregular, and discussed apart in 513. There is a large 
class of them. 

(c) Verbs in -get and -gir change g to j before a or o 
of the ending. 

COGER, to catch. 

PRES. SUBJ., coja, etc. 


(d) Verbs in -quir change qu to c before a or o of 

the ending. 

DELINQUIR, to be delinquent. 

PRES. INDIC., IST SING., delinco 
PRES. SUBJ., delinca, etc. 

(e) Verbs in -guir drop u of gu before a or o of the 


DISTINGUIR, to distinguish. 

PRES. INDIC., IST SING., distingo 
PRES. SUBJ., distinga, etc. 

509. Verbs whose stem ends in 11 or n, drop the i of 
the diphthong, in all forms whose ending begins with ie 
or io. This loss does not affect the pronunciation of the 
word, because of the i sound in 11 and n. 

BULLIR, to boil. 
PRES. PART., bullendo 

PAST DEF., 30 SING., build 30 PUJ., bulleron 
IMP. SUBJ., IST FORM, bullese, etc. 
IMP. SUBJ., 20 FORM, bullera, etc. 
PUT. SUBJ., bullcre, etc. 

TAiiER, to ring. 

PRES. PART., taiiendo. Other changes in same places as bullir. 

510. Certain verbs ending in -iar and -uar, require an 
accent on the i or the u in the present indicative and sub- 
junctive, all of the singular and the third person plural, 
and in the imperative singular. This is not strictly an 
orthographical change, since it affects the sound of the 
word. There is no rule by which the student may deter- 
mine what verbs are treated in this way. Of the verbs in- 
cluded in this book, enviar makes these changes and limpiar 
and ensuciar do not. 

ENVIAR, to send. 

PRES. INDIC., envio, envias, envia, enviamos, enviais, envian 
PRES. SUBJ., envie, envies, envie, enviemos, envieis, envien 


CONTINUAR, to continue. 
PRES. INDIC., continuo, continuas, continua, continuamos, continuous, 

PRES. SUBJ., continue, continues, continue, continuemos, continueis, 


511. Since unaccented i may not stand between two 
vowels, those verbs of, the second and third conjugations 
whose stems end in a vowel, are written with y instead of 
i as the first vowel of the endings which begin with ie or 
io. The forms affected are the present participle, the past 
definite, third singular and plural, the imperfect subjunc- 
tives and the future subjunctive. 

CREER, to believe. 
PRES. PART., creyendo 

PAST DEF., creyo creyeron ^ 

IMP. SUBJ., creyese, etc., creyera, etc. t 

FUT. SUBJ., creyere, etc. 

512. Irregular Verbs. In general it may be said that 
an irregular verb is one which does not preserve the same 
stem throughout,^ or which does not have the regular end- 
ings. Many irregular verbs are irregular in both stem and 
endings, and all the irregularity is apparent to both eye and 
ear. Many' irregular verbs have orthographical irregulari- 
ties as well. .Fortunately the greater number of irregular 
verbs may be 'included in five great groups, whose members 
have their peculiarities in common* The rest must be 
learned singly, since All attempts to simplify their acquisi- 
tion by a system of principal parts have proved unsatisfac- 
tory. Review the statements made in 127 and 141, as to 
the formation of irregular imperfect and future subjunctives. 

513. Verbs with Inceptive Endings. This is the sec- 
ond largest class of irregular verbs, containing as it does 
over 200. It consists of verbs whose infinitives end in -cer 
and -cir preceded by a vowel. In these verbs a z is inserted 


before c in the present indicative and subjunctive, in all 
forms whose ending begins with o or a; that is, in the first 
person of the present indicative, and all six forms of the 
present subjunctive. All other forms are regular. 

CONOCER, to know. 
PRES. INDIC., conozco 

PRES. SUBJ., conozca, conoscas, conozca, conoscamos, conoscdis, 

514. Radical-changing Verbs. Review 106. In rad- 
ical-changing verbs, changes are possible in the following 
groups of forms only. 

(a) The forms which receive the stress on the stem 
vowel ; i. e., the present indicative and subjunctive, all of 
the singular and the third person plural, and the singular 
of the imperative. 

(b) The present subjunctive, first and second persons 

(c) The forms whose endings begin with ie or io; i. e., 
the present participle, the past definite, the third persons 
singular and plural, the whole of the two imperfect sub- 
junctives, and the future subjunctive. 

515. First Class. The largest class of irregular verbs, 
containing over 300. Verbs of this class belong to the first 
or second conjugation, have stem vowel e or o, and change 
e to ie and o to ue in those forms whose stress falls on the 
stem. See 107. 

PENSAR, to think. 

PRES. INDIC., pienso, piensas, plensa, pensamos, pensais, piensan 
PRES. SUBJ., piense, pienses, piense, pensemos, penseis, piensen 

CONTAR, to tell, relate. 

PKES. INDIC., cuento, cuentas, cuenta, contamos, contais, cucntan 
PRES. SUBJ., cuente, cuentes, cucnte, contemos, conteis, cuenten 


516. Jugar, "to play," changes u to ue wherever the 
stem has the stress. It is also orthographically irregular, 
like pagar (see 507 b). 

PRES. INDIC., juego, juegas, juega, jugamos, jugais, juegan 
PRES. SUBJ., juegue, juegnes, juegue, juguemos, jugueis, jueguen 
PAST DEI-'., IST SING., jugue 

517. Errar, "to err," and oler, "to smell," are radical- 
changing verbs of the first class, but since no word may 
begin with ie or ue, errar writes its radical-changing forms 
with ye and oler writes its radical-changing forms with 
hue. As these spellings do not affect the sound, they are 
true orthographical changes. 


PRES. IND., yerro, yerras, ycrra, erramos, errais, yerran 
PRES. SUBJ., yerre, yerres, ycrre, erremos, erreis, yerren 


PRES. IND., huelo, hueles, huele, olemos, oleis, huelen 
PRES. SUBJ., huela, huelas, huela, olamos, olais, huelan 

518. Volver, "to turn," has, in addition to the vowel 
changes of a radical-changing verb of the first class, an ir- 
regular past participle, vuelto. Other verbs in -olver have 
past participles in -uelto. 

519. Many radical-changing verbs are orthographical- 
changing as well. These change according to the principles 
set forth in 507-509. Such a verb is 

ALMORZAR, "to eat lunch." 
PRES. INDIC., almucrzo, etc. 

PRES.. SUBJ., almuerce, almuerces, almuerce, almorcemos, almorccis, 


PAST DEF., IST SING., almorce 


COCER, "to boil," "bake." 

This verb is not inceptive (see 513), but radical and ortho- 
graphical changing. 

520. Second Class. Verbs of this class belong to the 
third conjugation and have stem- vowel e or o. They change 
stem-vowel e to ie and o to ue where the stress falls on the 
stem, and e to i and o to u (i) in the present subjunctive, 
first and second persons plural, and (2) in those forms 
whose ending begins with ie or 16 (see SHc). For model 
verbs see sentir and dormir, in 108. 

a. Morir, "to die," of this class, has the irregular past partici- 
ple muerto. 

521. Third Class. Verbs of this class all belong to 
the third conjugation, and all have stem- vowel e. They 
change e to i in those forms whose accent falls on the 
stem. They also change e to i (i) in the present subjunc- 
tive, first and second persons plural, and (2) in those forms 
whose endings begin with ie or io. For the model verb 
vestir, "to dress," see 109. 

a. Erguir, "to erect," which belongs to this class, may have 
ye instead of i in any of the forms which have the stress on the 
stem-vowel. It is also orthographical-changing, dropping its be- 
fore o or a of the ending. 

PRES. INDIC., irgo, irgues, irgue, erguimos, erguis, irguen 

yergo, yergues, yergue, erguimos, erguis, yerguen 

522. Several of the verbs of this class have ortho- 
graphical changes. 

a. Rcir, "to laugh," has a number of peculiarities. A written 
accent is required on all forms stressed on the stem vowel, and 
the i of all endings beginning with ie or id, disappears. Note also 
accents on present indicative, first plural, and in the imperative 

PRES PART., riendo PAST PART., reido 
PRES. IND., rio, ries, rie, reirnos, reis, rien. 
PRES. SUBJ., ria, rias, ria, riamos, rials, rian 


PAST DEF., 30 SING., rid 30 Pur., rieron 
IMPERF. SUBJ., etc., riese, riera, riere 

b. Other verbs in this class have the changes already dis- 
cussed in 507-509. Such a verb is 

SEGUIR, "to follow." 
PRES. INDIC., sigo 
PRES. SUBJ., siga, sigas, siga, sigamos, sigais, sigan 

523. -Uir verbs. This class includes verbs in -giiir, 
but not those in -guir and -quir. These verbs add y to the 
stem (i) in all forms which have the accent on the stem, 
and (2) in the present subjunctive, first and second persons 

In addition, the i of all endings beginning with ie or io 
becomes y. (See similar change in verbs like creer, in 

HUIR, "to flee." 

PRES. PART., huyendo. 

PRES. INDIC., huyo, huyes, huye, huimos, huis, huyen 
PRES. SUBJ., huya, huyas, huya, huyamos, huyais, huyan 
PAST DEF., 30 SING., huyd 30 PLU., huyeron 
IMPERF. SUBJ., etc., huyese, huyera, huyere 
IMPERATIVES, huye, huid 

a. Verbs in-gti/r lose the diaeresis before y. Thus, argiiir, "to 
argue," arguyo, arguyes, etc. 

524. Unclassable Irregular Verbs. The verbs that 
follow in alphabetical order, do not lend themselves to any 
classification that is easier to learn than the verbs them- 
selves. Forms omitted may be assumed to be regular, with 
the exception of the imperfect and future subjunctives, and 
the future and conditional indicative. The imperfect and 
future subjunctives are to be derived from the third person 
plural of the past definite, as explained in 127 and 141. The 
conditional has the same stem as the future, and the end 
ings of the future and conditional are always regular. 


525. Andar, andando, andado. To walk. 

PAST DEFINITE, anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvisteis, 

526. Asir, asiendo, asido. To grasp. 

PRES. INDIC., asgo, ases, ase, asimos, asis, asen 

PRES. SUBJ., asga, asgas, asga, asgamos, asgdis, asgan 

527. Caber, cabiendo, cabido. To be contained in. 

PRES. INDIC., quepo, cabes, cabe, cabemos, cabeis, caben 
PRES. SUBJ., quepa, quepas, quepa, quepamos, quepdis, quepan 
PAST DBF., cupe, cnpiste, cupo, cupimos, cupisteis, cupieron 

528. Caer, cayendo, caido. To fall. 

PRES. INDIC., calgo, caes, cae, caemos, caeis, caen 

PRES. SUBJ., caiga, caigas, caiga, caigamos, caigdis, caigan 

PAST DEF., cai, caiste, cayo, caimos, caisteis, cayeron 

529. -ducir, -duciendo, -ducido. There are a number 
of compound verbs that end in -ducir, among them traducir, 
"to translate." 

PRES. INDIC., tradusco, traduces, etc. 

PRES. SUBJ., traduzca, traduzcas, traduzca, tradnzcamos, traduscdis, 

PAST DEF., traduje, tradujiste, tradujo, tradujimos, tradujisteis, 


530. Dar, dando, dado. To give. 

PRES. INDIC., doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan 
PRES. SUBJ., de", des, de, demos, deis, den 
PAST DEF., di, diste, did, dimos, disteis, dieron 

531. Decir, diciendo, dicho. To say, tell. 

PRES. INDIC., digo, dices, dice, decimos, decis, dicen 
PRES. SUBJ., diga, digas, diga, digamos, digdis, digan 


PAST DEF., dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, diferon 
IMPERATIVES, di, decid 

a. Of the compounds of decir, bendecir, "to bless," and mal- 
decir, "to curse," are regular in the future and conditional. 

532. Estar, estando, estado. To be. 

PRES. INDIC., estoy, eslas, estd, estamos, estais, estan 
PRES. SUBJ., este, estcs, este, estemos, esteis, esten 
PAST DEF., estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvlsteis, estuvi- 

533. Haber, habiendo, habido. To have. 

PRES. INDIC., he, has, ha, hemos, habeis, han 

PRES. SUBJ., haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hay&is, hayan 

PAST DEF., hube, hubiste, hubo, hubimos, hubisteis, hubieron 


IMPERATIVES, he, habed 

a. Used impersonally, haber has the special form hay for the 
present indicative, third person singular. 

534. Hacer, haciendo, hecho. To make, do. 

PRES. INDIC., hago, haces, hace, hacemos, haceis, hacen 4 
PRES. SUBJ., haga, hagas, haga, hagamos, hagais, hagan 
PAST DEF., hice, hiciste, hlzo, hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron 
FUTURE IND., hare 
IMPERATIVES, haz, haced' 

o. There are a number of words ending in -facer, that are com- 
pounds of hacer, and conjugated like it. Satis facer has also the 
imperative form satisface. 

535. Ir, yendo, ido. To go. 

PRES. INDIC., voy, vas, va, vatnos, -vais, van 

PRES. SUBJ., vaya, vayas, -vaya, vayamos, vaydis, vayan 

IMPERF. IND., iba, ibas, iba, ibamos, ibais, iban 


PAST DBF., fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron 
IMPERATIVES, ve, id, and, for the first person plural, vamos. 

536. Oir, oyendo, oido. To hear. 

PKES. INDIC., oigo, oyes, oye, oimos, ois, oyen 
PRES. SUBJ., oiga, oigas, oiga, oigamos, oigdis, oigan 
PAST DEF., oi, oiste, oyo, oimos, oisteis, oyeron 
IMPERATIVES, oye, oid 

537. Poder, pudiendo, podido. To be able. 

PRES. IND., pued'o, puedes, puede, podemos, podeis, pueden 
PRES. SUBJ., pueda, puedas, pueda, podamos, podais, puedan 
PAST DEF., pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron 
FUTURE IND., podre 
IMPERATIVES, lacking. 

538. Poner, poniendo, puesto. To put. 

PRES. INDIC., pongo, pones, pone, ponemos, poneis, ponen 
PRES. SUBJ., ponga, pongas, ponga, pongamos, pongdis, pongan 
PAST DEE., puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron 
FUTURE IND., pondre 
IMPERATIVES, pon, poned 

539. Querer, queriendo, querido. To wish. 

PRES. INDIC., quiero, quieres, quiere, queremos, quereis, quieren 
PKES. SUBJ., quiera, quieras, quiera, queramos, querais, qnieran 
PAST DEF., qitise, quislste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron 
FUTURE IND., querre 
IMPERATIVES, quiere, quered 

540. Saber, sabiendo, sabido. To know. 

PRES. INDIC., sc, sabes, sabe, sabemos, sabeis, saben 
PRES. SUBJ., sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepals, sepan 
PAST DEF., supe, supiste, supo, siipimos, supisteis, supieron 
FUTURE IND., sabre 


541. Salir, saliendo, salido. To go out. 

PRES. INDIC., salgo, sales, sale, salimos, salis, salen 
PRES. SUBJ., saiga, saigas, saiga, salgamos, salgdis, salgan 
FUTURE IND., saldre 
IMPERATIVES, sal, salid 

542. Ser, siendo, sido. To be. 

PRES. INDIC., soy, eres, es, sotnos, sois, son 
PRES. SUBJ., sea, seas, sea, seamos, seals, scan 
IMPERF. IND., era, eras, era, eramos, erais, eran 
PAST DEF., fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron 

543. Tener, teniendo, tenido. To have. 

PRES. IND., tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, teneis, tienen 
PRES. SUBJ., tenga, tengas, tenga, tengamos, teng&is, tcngan 
PAST DEF., tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron 
FUTURE IND., tendre 
IMPERATIVES, ten, tened 

544. Traer, trayendo, traido. To bring. 

PRES. IND., traigo, traes, trae, traemos, traeis, traen 

PRES. SUBJ., traiga, traigas, traiga, traigamos, traig&is, traigan 

PAST DEF., traje, trajiste, trajo, trajitnos, trajisteis, trajeron 

545. Valer, valiendo, valido. To be worth. 

PRES. INDIC., valgo, vales, vale, valemos, valeis, valen 
PRES. SUBJ., valga, valgas, valga, valgamos, valgais, valgan 
FUTURE IND., valdre 
IMPERATIVES, val or vale, valed 

546. Ver, viendo, visto. To see. 

PRES. INDIC., vco, ves, ve, vemos, veis, ven 
PRES. SUBJ., vea, -veas, -vea, veamos, -veais, vean 
IMPERF. IND., veia, veias, veia, veiamos, -veiais, veian 
PAST DEF., vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron 


547. Venir, viniendo, venido. To come. 

PRES. INDIC., vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venis, vienen 
PRES. SUBJ., venga, vengas, venga, vengamos, vengdis, vengan 
PAST DEF., vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron 
FUTURE IND., vendre 
IMPERATIVES, ven, venid 

548. Defective Verbs. A number of verbs are lack 
ing in some of their forms, and still others currently use 
only a few of the forms which they possess. To this latter 
class belong the impersonal verbs that describe the phenom- 
ena of nature. Such are, nevar, "to snow," Hover, "to 
rain," etc. 

Nacer, "to be born," cannot, from its nature, be used 
conveniently in the first person present indicative, or in the 
singular imperative. 

Roer, "to gnaw," in the present indicative and subjunc- 
tive may have as stem before a strong vowel in the ending, 
ro-, roig-, or roy. It is not used often, however, in these 
forms. The past participle, roido is common. 

Aplacer, "to please," ataner, "to appertain," and con- 
cernir, "to concern," are found in the third person. 

Yacer, "to lie," is used mostly in the third person, 
though rare outside of epitaphs. In the present indicative 
and subjunctive, it may have as stem, before a strong 
vowel in the ending, yazc-, yazg-, or yag. The other forms 
are regular. 

Soler, "to be wont," is used in the present indicative and 
imperfect only. In the present indicative it changes stem 
vowel o to ue where stressed. 

Placer, "to please," is seldom used in any but the third 
person singular. Note: past definite, plugo or placio; 
present subjunctive, plega, plegue, and plazca; imperfect 
subjunctives and future subjunctive, pluguiese, and placiese, 


pluguiera and placiera, pluguiere and placiere. The other 
forms are regular. 

549. Irregular Past Participles. The four following 
verbs are irregular only in the past participle. 

abrir, "to open," past participle abierto. 
cubrir, "to cover," past participle cubierto. 
escribir, "to write," past participle escrito. 
imprimir, "to print," past participle impreso. 

a. The following have two past participles. 
oprlmir, "to oppress," past participles oprimido and opreso. 
suprimir, "to suppress," past participles suprimido and supreso. 
prender, "to arrest," past participles prendido and preso, 
romper, "to break," past participles rompido and roto. 

550. List of Irregular Verbs. This list, while not 
complete, will be found to contain all verbs that the student 
is likely to encounter in his reading. Verbs in -uir are not 
included, excepting those in -guir and -quir, nor are incep- 
tive verbs included. For -uir verbs see 523, and for incep- 
tive verbs, 513. Numbers refer to the paragraph in the 
verb section where the verb, or one like it, is conjugated. 

abrir, 549. amolar, 515. 

absolver, 518. andar, 525. 

abstenerse, 543. antedecir, 531. 

abstraer, 544. r.nteponer, 538. 

acertar, 515. antever, 546. 

acordar, 515. apacentar, 515. 

acostar, 515. aplacer, 548. 

acrecentar, 515. apostar, 515. 

adestrar, 515. apretar, 515. 

adherir, 520. aprobar, 515. 

adormir, 520. arrendar, 515. 

adquirir, 515. arrepentirse, 520. 

aducir, like 529. ascender, 515. 

advertir, 520. asentar, 515. 

alentar, 515. asentir, 520. 

almorzar, 519. asir, 526. 

alongar, 519. asoldar, 515. 

amoblar, 515. asonar, 515. 



atender, 515. 
atenerse, 543. 
atentar, 515. 
aterrar, 515. 
atestar, 515. 
atraer, 544. 
atravesar, 515. 
atronar, 515. 
avenir, 547. 
aventar, 515. 
avergonzar, 519. 

bendecir, 531. 
brufiir, 509. 
bullir, 509. 

caber, 527. 
caer, 528. 
calentar, 515. 
cegar, 519. 
cenir, 522 b. 
cerner, 515. 
cerrar, 515. 
cimentar, 515. 
cocer, 519. 
colar, 515. 
colegir, 522 b. 
colgar, 519. 
comenzar, 519. 
competir, 521. 
complacer, 548. 
componer, 538. 
comprobar, 515. 
concebir, 521. 
concernir, like 515. 
concertar, 515. 
concordar, 515. 
ccndescender, 515. 
condolerse, 515. 
conducir, 529. 
conferir, 520. 
confesar, 515. 
conmover, 515. 
conseguir, 522 b. 
consentir, 520. 
consolar, 515. 
consonar, 515. 
contar, 515. 
contender, 515. 
contener, 543. 

contorcerse, 519. 
contradecir, 531. 
contraer, 544. 
contrahacer, 534. 
contraponer, 538. 
contravenir, 547. 
controvertir, 520. 
con ven ir, 547. 
convertir, 520. 
corregir, 522 b. 
corroer, 548. 
costar, 515. 
creer, 511. 
cubrir, 549. 

dar, 530. 
decaer, 528. 
decir, 531. 
deducir, 529. 
defender, 515. 
deferir, 520. 
degollar, 519. 
demoler, 515. 
demostrar, 515. 
denegar, 519. 
denostar, 515. 
deponer, 538. 
derretir, ,521. 
derrocar, 519. 
desalentar, 515. 
desandar, 525. 
desapretar, 515. 
desaprobar, 515. 
desasir, 526. 
desavenir, 547. 
descender, 515. 
descenir, 522 b. 
descolgar, 519. 
descollar, 515. 
descomponer, 538. 
desconcertar, 515. 
descontar, 515. 
desconvenir, 547. 
descubrir, 549. 
desdecir, 531. 
desempedrar, 515. 
desenterrar, 515. 
desenvolver, 518. 
deservir, 521. 
desgobernar, 515. 


deshacer, 534. 
deshelar, 515. 
desleir, 522 a. 
desmedirse, 521. 
desmentir, 520. 
desoir, 536. 
desolar, 515. 
despedir, 521. 
despertar, 515. 
desplacer, 548. 
desplegar, 519. 
despoblar, 515. 
desterrar, 515. 
detener, 543. 
detraer, 544. 
devolver, 518. 
diferir, 520. 
digerir, 520. 
discernir, 515. 
disconvenir, 547. 
discordar, 515. 
disentir, 520. 
disolver, 518. 
disonar, 515. 
displacer, 548. 
disponer, 538. 
distender, 515. 
distract, 544. 
divertir, 520. 
doler, 515. 
dormir, 520. 

elegir, 522 b. 
embestir, 521. 
empezar, 519. 
encender, 515. 
encerrar, 515. 
encomendar, 515. 
encontrar, 515. 
engreir, 521. 
engrosar, 515. 
enmendar, 515. 
entender, 515. 
enterrar, 515. 
entreoir, 536. 
entreponcr, 538. 
entretener, 543. 
en tr ever, 546. 
envolver, 518. 
equivaler, 245. 

erguir, 521 a. 
errar, 517. 
escarmentar, 515. 
escribir, 549. 
esforzar, 519. 
estar, 532. 
expedir, 521. 
exponer, 538. 
extender, 515. 
extraer, 544. 

forzar, 519. 
fregar, 519. 
freir, 521. 

gemir, 521. 
gobernar, 515. 
grunir, 509. 

haber, 533. 
hacer, 534. 
helar, 515. 
henchir, 521. 
bender, 515. 
herir, 520. 
hervir, 520. 
herrar, 515. 
hclgar, 519. 
hollar, 515. 

impedir, 521. 
imponer, 538. 
imprimir, 549. 
improbar, 515. 
incensar, 515. 
inducir, 529. 
inferir, 520. 
inquirir, 515. 
interponer, 538. 
intervenir, 547. 
introducir, 529. 
invernar, 515. 
invertir, 520. 
investir, 521. 
ir, 535- 

jugar, 516. 

leer, 511. 
Hover, 515. 



maldecir, 531. , 
malherir, 520. 
maltraer, 544. 
manifestar, 515. 
mantener, 543. 
medir, 521. 
mentar, 515. 
mentir, 520. 
merendar, 515. 
moblar, 515. 
moler, 515. 
morder, 515. 
morir, 520. 
mostrar, 515. 
mover, 515. 

negar, 519. 
nevar, 515. 

obtener, 543. 
oir, 536. 
oler, 517. 
cponer, 539. 
oprimir, 549. 

pedir, 521. 
pensar, 515. 
perder, 515. 
perseguir, 522 b. 
pervertir, 520. 
placer, 548. 
plegar, 519. 
poblar, 515. 
poder, 537. 
poner, 538. 
poseer, 511. 
posponer, 538. 
predecir, 531. 
preferir, 520. 
prender, 549. 
preponer, 538. 
presentir, 520. 
presuponer, 538. 
prevenir, 547. 
prever, 546. 
probar,_ 515. 
producir, 529. 
proferir, 520. 
promover, 515. 
proponer, 538. 

proseguir, 522 b. 
proveer, 511. 
provenir, 547. 

quebrar, 515. 
querer, 539. 

recaer, 528. 
recocer, 519. 
recomendar, 515. 
recomponer, 538. 
recontar, 515. 
reconvenir, 547. 
recordar, 515. 
recostar, 515. 
teducir, 529. 
reelegir, 522 b. 
referir, 520. 
reforzar, 519. 
regar, 519. 
regir, 522 b. 
regoldar, 519. 
rehacer, 534. 
rehollar, 515. 
reir, 522 a. 
remendar, 515. 
rementir, 520. 
remoler, 515. 
remorder, 515. 
remover, 515. 
rendir, 521. 
renegar, 519. 
renpvar, 515. 
renir, 522 b. 
repetir, 521. 
replegar, 519. 
reponer, 538. 
reprobar, 515. 
reproducir, 529. 
requebrar, 515. 
requerir, 520. 
resalir, 541. 
resentirse, 520. 
resolver, 518. 
resollar, 515. 
resonar, 515. 
restregar, 5*9. 
retemblar, 515. 
retener, 543. 
retorcer, 519. 


retraer, 544. 
reventar, 515. 
rever, 546. 
reverter, 515. 
revestir, 521. 
revolcarse, 519. 
revolver, 518. 
rodar, 515. 
roer, 548. 
rogar, 519. 

saber, 540. 
salir, 541. 
satisfacer, 534. 
scgar, 519. 
seguir, 522 b. 
sembrar, 515. 
sementar, 515. 
sentar, 515. 
sentir, 520. 
ser, 542. 
scrrar, 515. 
servir, 521. 
sobre(e)ntender, 515. 
sobreponer, 538. 
sobresalir, 541. 
sobrevenir, 547. 
sobrevestir, 521. 
solar, 515. 
soldar, 515. 
soler, 548. 
soltar, 515. 
solver, 518. 
sonar, 515. 
sonreir, 522 a. 
sonar, 515. 
sosegar, 519. 
sostener, 543. 
subarrendar, 515. 
subtender, 515. 
subvenir, 547. 
subvertir, 520. 
sugerir, 520. 

superpower, 538. 
supervenir, 547. 
suponer, 538. 
suprimir, 549. 
sustraer, 544. 

taner, 509. 
temblar, 515. 
tender, 515. 
tener, 543. 
tentar, 515. 
tenir, 522 b. 
torcer, 519. 
tostar, 515. 
Iraducir, 529. 
traer, 544. 
transcender, 515. 
transferir, 520. 
transponer, 538. 
trascender, 515. 
trascordarse, 515. 
trasegar, 519. 
trasonar, 515. 
trasponer, 538. 
trastrocar, 519. 
travesar, 515. 
trocar, 519. 
tronar, 515. 
tropezar, 519. 

valer, 545. 
venir, 547. 
ventar, 515. 
ver, 546. 
verier, 515. 
vestir, 521. 
volar, 515. 
volcar, 519. 
volver, 518. 

yacer, 548. 

za(m)bullirse, 509 
zaherir, 520. 



i. I do not live here. 2. The child is running to the 
teacher. 3. Do you (sing.} smoke too much? 4. Are you 
(plu.) studying the lesson? 5. The girls go into the store. 
6. The teacher's son finds money on the table. 7. We buy 
flowers for Mary. 8. Does John's teacher work a great deal ? 
9. The lady does not write to Mary. 10. The boy takes the 
flowers from the girl. 


i. I am working and you are working also. 2. Are you 
studying in order to learn? 3. We (fern.} have a sister and 
you (int. plu.) have a brother. 4. Must I sing for the teach- 
er? 5. Do you (ord. plu.) wish to come in? 6. You (int. 
plu.) should write the words on the blackboard. 7. What 
does the word mean? 8. What language do you teach? 
9. Where do they (fern.) live? 10. I have some books. 
ii. John hasn't any classes to-day. 12. Are you (int. sing.) 
not running too much? 13. We ought to study now. 14. 
You sing well but they (fern.) sing badly. 


i. A good girl studies hard (= a good deal) because 
she wishes to learn. 2. A bad boy does not review his les- 
sons. 3. Many lazy children have to learn rules. 4. How 
old is the handsome English girl? 5. Louise is ten years 
old and John is eight. 6. Spanish is easy but the lessons are 
too long. 7. Are they writing the exercises in German? 

* Exercises are numbered to agree with lessons to which they 


8. Do you speak French? 9. Are you (ord. sing.} Ameri- 
can? 10. I am the teacher and you are the pupils, n. 
The French pupils do not speak English well. 12. Is it 


I. The kitchen is a small room but the library is large. 
2. Is the grammar John's? 3. Whose is it? 4. We are 
not at all well. 5. We are very sick. 6. Have you not eaten 
yet? 7. We are already eating. 8. The water is cold and 
the chocolate is hot. 9. Being sick Louise does not want to 
eat. 10. They have had to go up. n. They are upstairs 
now. 12. You and I are American. 13. Did you buy the 
hat to-day? 14. Not having any money they are sad. 15. 
Have you not been in Paris? 16. Is Mary still in Madrid? 


i. The teacher is very pretty and her cousin is hand- 
some. 2. Louis and Emma are our brother and sister. 3. 
My nephews and nieces are my brother's sons and daughters. 
4. My uncle and aunt are in Paris but they have relatives 
in the city of Madrid. 5. I am preparing the breakfast for 
your (int.} mother. 6. Being industrious my cousin is pre- 
paring her lessons for to-morrow. 7. Your (plu.} toast 
is on the table, ours is in the kitchen. 8. Her friend is in 
the library. 9. You have my books and I have yours. 10. 
The house is yours, ours, theirs, n. There are four pages 
in my lesson. How many are there in yours ? 


i. I do not need my reading-book, consequently I am 
going to leave it at home. 2. Carmen is a very nice girl and 
ought not to go alone. 3. Are you going to John's with me 
this afternoon? 4. Is Mary looking for her brother? 5. 
We have bought some handsome hats and shoes. 6. This 
silk is pretty. 7. Those gloves are cheap. 8. Have you 


spoken with her? 9. Is this your lace? 10. No, that yon- 
der is mine. n. Mary and I are going together to-night. 
12. Did you leave your books at school? 13. I am going 
to stay with you. 


I. They are calling us. 2. She has spoken to me. 3. 
Do you want to speak to her? 4. We are calling her, him. 
5. I am speaking to him. 6. I am looking for you (fern, 
sing. ord.}. 7. I love him and he loves me. 8. / love you. 
9. We love the girl. 10. He says that he is going to visit 
you to-morrow, n. Why do you want to go there first? 
12. May we not go together afterwards? 13. I like these 
shoes better than those yonder. 14. Can you not answer 
her in English? 15. Will you please show me another pat- 
tern and another color? 16. Are you buying them for him 
or for her? 


i. I punished my son this afternoon because he was 
bad. 2. Carmen's husband and father were with her. 3. 
At Wanamaker's we bought two pairs of gloves and a lace 
hat. 4. While we were waiting for our friends we looked 
out of the window. 5. He greeted me politely. 6. I was 
going through Seville St. when I met her. 7. Did they treat 
you (ord. plu. fern.) well? -8. Whom did your uncle meet 
this morning? 9. What were they doing when the teacher 
came in? 10. We had worked hard. n. What was Suarez 


i. Have you seen Peter? 2. They speak French in 
Canada. 3. I saw him and he saw me. 4. How long were 
we in Mexico? 5. He caught cold yesterday. 6. This 
morning I happened to be at home when Louisa came in. 
7. They speak many languages in the United States. 8. We 
have bought these books for ourselves. 9. They say that 
you speak various languages. 10. What is that gentleman's 


name? n. What are the principal cities of Europe? 12. 
What is a republic? 13. Don't you see? 


i. Is it one o'clock already ? 2. What time was it when 
I called you? 3. It is twenty minutes past eleven. 4. It 
was eighteen minutes to six and I was very sleepy. 5. We 
went away without them. 6. Many things can be learned 
without studying. 7. I made the dress for my daughter. 
8. We wanted to run but we could not. 9. Why do you 
look at your watch? 10. By dint of studying we learn, n. 
Why did you not want to go with her? 12. They say that 
you do not like South America. 13. In order to have break- 
fast early we must get up early. 


i. The doctor will be at home this morning at eleven. 
2. Santiago is the largest city in Chile. 3. I shall go away 
to-morrow in the morning. 4. They said that they should 
arrive at nine o'clock. 5. They say that they shall arrive 
at six-twenty. 6. What is this servant's name ? 7. The best 
country in the world is my native land. 8. The children are 
in a hurry. 9. Shall we take seats near the door ? 10. What 
shall we be able to do then? n. If I were a teacher I 
should have to work all day and all night. 12. Are you a 
teacher ? 


i. He tells me not to go. 2. He will forbid us to go 
there. 3. I can not let you go in. 4. I hope she is studying 
enough. 5. I hope to go away day after to-morrow. 6. I 
want John to study more. 7. Are you not afraid he will see 
you? 8. It is possible that he is sick. 9. It is necessary for 
us to learn to cook. 10. It is not necessary to get up late, 
ii. The teacher has told the child to try to be good. 12. 
Will you let me have breakfast with you? 13. I must be at 


home before seven. 14. It is certain that his name is 


i. How many hours do you sleep every night? 2. I 
need twenty minutes to dress. 3. When we are tired we lie 
down. 4. I do not want you to wake me up early. 5. Don't 
you hope I will have a good time? 6. We came back at 
midnight. 7. I hope you will not forget me completely. 
8. I do not understand you. 9. She says she is sorry you 
are so sick. 10. Both (of us) had a good time. n. Must 
you go to bed now? 12. Some day we shall go together to 
the theater. 13. Do the Spanish talk too fast? 


i. Are you willing to give them to me? 2. I did not 
give them to you but to her. 3. For whom did you buy it ? 
For you. 4. Ordinarily I prefer what is new. 5. Is your 
father a doctor? He is. 6. You are a good boy. 7. No 
man is as learned as he wants to be. 8. To whom are you 
going to give it? 9. Yellow is prettier than blue. 10. They 
had just received the news of John Rico's illness, n. I will 
introduce you to him. 12. Will you give it to her? 13. Mr. 
Smith, a teacher of Spanish, will arrive to-night. 14. I 
entreat you not to cry. 


i. Let Mary prepare the breakfast. 2. Let us buy these 
flowers. 3. May you (pin.) have a good time. 4. Let John 
open it. 5. Let us dress at once. 6. Let us not show it to 
them. 7. Help yourselves. 8. Have the kindness to intro- 
duce us to your mother. 9. Come in, gentlemen. 10. Don't 
go away to-day, n. He wants you to say something. 12. 
Let us not say a word. 13. Tell me at once. 14. Excuse 
(plu.) me. 15. I shall not allow you to be in the room. 
16. Answer me. 



i. There are twelve months in the year. 2. Did your 
father tell you not to work hard ? 3. I had not ordered him 
to make it. 4. If my nephew could speak Spanish he would 
talk to you. 5. Would you like to have me go with you? 
6. It was not possible for her to come out. 7. Come with 
me. 8. I should like to have good marks at school. 9. She 
said she was not feeling well. 10. John forbade them to 
wake him up before nine o'clock, n. If we were in Madrid 
we should go to the theatre every night. 


i. He was very sorry we had nothing to do. 2. I am 
glad that it is good weather. 3. Buy me any hat that is 
pretty and that has a long feather. 4. What kind of weather 
was it last week? 5. I don't know any mountain range pret- 
tier than this. 6. However small the house may be, I shall 
like it. 7. Nobody knows him in this city, and he knows no- 
body. 8. They knew us as soon as they saw us. 9. You 
will need it before you arrive in Madrid. 10. We did it in 
order that he might have something to eat. 


i. She thanked me very politely for the flowers. 2. It 
is not necessary for you to take a street car. 3. On reaching 
Cross St., turn to the right. 4. I don't like to address these 
cabmen. 5. Don't you know how to call a cab? 6. Ask 
any man you may meet. 7. Did he say it was far to the 
station? 8. We don't know any Spanish words. 9. They 
told us to keep on through this street. 10. The trains leave 
the station every hour. n. Do you prefer Spring or 
Autumn? 12. When you don't know the hour of departure 
of any train, look in the time-table. 



i. He doubted whether he had ever seen me before. 
2. Do you think it is true? 3. I think I can speak French 
quite well. 4. Life is expensive here. 5. Why are foreign- 
ers accustomed to go in first class carriages ? 6. May one 
enter free, or must one buy a ticket? 7. Those who travel 
a great deal learn a great deal. 8. The trains are less com- 
fortable than those of the United States. 9. Traveling is 
truly interesting. 10. Those who carry steamer rugs will 
be glad of it. n. Did you ask a favor of John, or did you 
ask him a question? 


i. I have just seen two ladies whom I knew in Paris. 
2. The men who weigh the baggage have not yet come. 3. 
That is Mr. Suarez's daughter yonder, of whom I spoke to 
you. 4. Don't you want the box brought to the baggage 
room? 5. Is it necessary for us to have our hats made this 
month? 6. This is your trunk, is it not? 7. You told him 
to examine the baggage didn't you? 8. It seems that we are 
to stop at the frontier. 9. Must we get out of the train? 
10. These are the tickets by means of which we may enter 
the Prado. n. Seven hundred forty-three thousand, five 
hundred and twelve. 


i. Are you certain that she is coming by boat? 2. He 
insisted on my giving him this room. 3. Of course I want 
to get well as soon as possible. 4. I am glad they don't need 
anything. 5. My son, don't forget that your father is your 
best friend. 6. We didn't think they were at all pretty. 7. 
Hurry or we shall not get (== arrive) there on time. 8. 
Let me feel your pulse. 9. Yesterday we met a traveling 
companion of ours, a certain Fernandez. 10. Are you go- 
ing to put on your overcoat ? 



I. If we had been here we should have seen them. 2. 
These are extremely important things. 3. I said as little as 
possible. 4. One should read as much as possible. 5. We 
have read more books than the teacher thinks. 6. He will 
have seen many countries before he gets back (= returns). 
7. We were sorry we had not read the letters. 8. The 
boarding house has more boarders than you have seen. 9. 
I have told you more than a thousand times to tell her I 
am not at home. 10. I have forgotten the name of the 
gentleman whose house we occupied in Paris. 


i. When Edward had eaten the greens he became ex- 
tremely sick. 2. Let us not suppose such a thing. 3. Did 
they answer that they would meet us at the station? 4. 
They said they would (=yes). 5. Did you ever see a more 
interesting bill-of-fare? 6. When shall I call you ? 7. What 
do you imagine this dish is? 8. Can this be a kind of salad? 
9. What they gave you was probably Spanish omelet. 10. 
Fruit follows the salad, n. Waiter, bring me the bill-of- 
fare. 12. Do you want me to bring you anything to eat? 


i. When did he die? A year ago. 2. We have been in 
this class for an hour. 3. They had entered the building 
an hour before. 4. Ever since I have known you I have 
loved you. 5. I haven't been in Madrid for nine years. 6. 
In August it will be three years since I heard Caruso sing 
in New York. 7. Every Spaniard drinks wine. 8. Did 
you see me do that? 9. There is a great deal of difference 
between a coffee cup and a cup of coffee. 10. I liked every- 
thing and ate everything. 11. How long ago did you buy 
those eggs? 



I. Certain friends of ours are coming in their automo- 
bile to visit us. 2. Every two years we used to spend a 
summer in the country. 3. He answered that he didn't 
feel like doing it. 4. You couldn't get there to-day, even if 
you went by train. 5. She has been very sick for a fort- 
night. 6. It makes no difference whether you take the let- 
ters to the postoffice or whether you put them in the letter- 
box. 7. Concerning the bill from the tailor I have nothing 
to say. 8. They used to sleep with the windows open, even 
in winter. 9. It has not yet struck five. 10. Let Charles buy 
me three more (=^ other) stamps. 


i. We haven't seen each other for several years, have 
we ? 2. In some way or other it ought to be possible to defer 
the trip. 3. How long did it take you to go up the moun- 
tain ? 4. Many folks postpone going to the bathing resorts 
until mid-summer. 5. It is already beginning to get dark 
(become night) early. 6. Whether it rain or snow, it 
doesn't matter. 7. What tall trees ! 8. Automobiles travel 
as fast as trains. 9. Let us walk. 10. Come what may, I 
shall never believe that this man is bad. 


I. Spaniards have small feet. 2. My head doesn't ache 
at all. 3. The sick boy was cared for by his aunt. 4. When 
the doctor had been consulted, I had to go to the drugstore. 
5. This lesson is poorly prepared. 6. Do you think yoil can 
stand (=bear) it? 7. Why am I not consulted? 8. Didn't 
she remember your name? 9. Are my hands dirty? 10. 
She has been told that her husband's illness is not a matter 
to worry about, n. Mary will not fail to telephone. 



i. In the country of the blind the one-eyed man is 
King. 2. Why is your hair always dishevelled ? 3. Do you 
mean the trunk of a tree or a trunk for clothes? 4. What 
can you give me that will make me digest what I eat? 5. 
The teacher made us learn the names of the five fingers. 6. 
There are five senses without counting common sense. 7. 
Your lips are not so red as mine. 8. Every child that doesn't 
talk is not mute. 9. What is the use of a long nose? 10. 
Let's see if you can move your little finger without moving 
the rest. 


i. It is easy to be mistaken. 2. It is easy for him to be 
mistaken. 3. I have just learned that Alexander married 
the widow of an old chum of yours. 4. In short, the more 
languages one learns, the easier it is to learn them. 5. Ex- 
cepting Anna, no one of my daughters is married. 6. The 
money was all gone before I was able to find anything to do. 

7. Both of them are old, but John is younger than his sister. 

8. He has always regretted not devoting himself to the study 
of science. 9. I am told that he insisted on marrying his 
daughter to a doctor. 10. Always choose (/>/.) the largest. 


i. Tell me (int. sing.} why. 2. Don't hide (int. plu.} 
3. Take off (ord. sing.} your hat. 4. Don't ever play (int. 
plu.} with that naughty boy. 5. Laugh (ord. plu.} at me if 
you want. 6. Don't lie (ord. plu.} to your father. 7. If 
you' (int. sing.} do it again, I shall punish you. 8. Give 
(int. sing.} him the ball. 9. Give it to him. 10. I have 
done nothing of which I ought to be ashamed, u. Count 
(ord. sing.} from one to one hundred. 12. Just imagine! 
He asked me for a kiss. 



i. I should not like to be a shoemaker or a butcher. 2. 
Translate for me the first part of the lesson. 3. A grocer 
sells many things besides spices. 4. Have you not been told 
that Mexican coins are not current in this country? 5. 
Beans are eaten in Mexico as much as chick-peas in Spain. 
6. We find the codfish in the boarding-houses of most 'coun- 
tries. 7. Give me the names of a few vegetables. 8. A 
Spanish duro is worth about an American dollar. 9. I can 
sell you this trout at four reals a pound. 10. We have tried 
to make the flowers grow but cannot. 


i. Such a small hat is not becoming to such a large 
woman. 2. In Spain, if one does not bargain one always 
pays more than the goods are worth. 3. A trout fourteen 
inches long is not caught every .day. 4. In Spain I have 
bought for 90 centimos linen handkerchiefs that would have 
cost me 75 cents here. 5. How wide are these sheets? 6. 
Are you not afraid that on reaching home you will find that 
this kind of sleeve is no longer in style? 7. I shall not fail 
to bring you a fan or something equally interesting. 


i. The first Spanish theatre was founded in the six- 
teenth century. 2. Charles the Fifth was the father of 
Philip the Second. 3. I saw several bull-fighters with their 
short jackets. 4. The streets of Toledo are narrower than 
those of the capital. 5. The Sevillan and the Madrilene 
speak the same language, but aside from this they do not re- 
semble one another. 6. The present Queen of Spain is an 
Englishwoman. /. It is possible that Spain may still come 
to be one of the most important countries of Europe. 8. 
The new Spain will have to be built upon the public schools. 


This vocabulary does not include the personal pronouns, the demon- 
stratives, the possessives, or the cardinal numerals. Gender is not given 
for nouns whose gender is regular by termination or meaning. A few new 
words are included, for the most part synonyms of words already used in 
the lessons. Inverted exclamation points and question marks are not used. 
The dash ( ) is used to avoid repetition of the English word whose Spanish 
equivalent is being given. 

ability, habilidad, f. 

about, de ; cerca de (nearly) ; 5 

pesetas, cosa de 5 pesetas, 
above, sobre; all, sobre todo. 
absent, ausente. 
absolutely, absolutamente. 
abundance, abundancia. 
accompany, acompanar. 
according as, according to, segun. 
account, cuenta; on this , por 

esto ; on that , por eso. 
ache, dolor, m. ; doler. 
acquaintance, conocido ; make the 

of, conocer. 

acquainted, be with, conocer. 
act, representar (a play), 
acute, agudo. 

addition: in to, ademas de. 
address, dirigirse a. 
advance: in , adelantado. 
advantage: be of , aprovechar. 
advise, aconsejar. 
affair, caso, asunto. 
affirm, afirmar. 

afraid: be , tener miedo, temer. 
after, despues de (prep.), despue's 

que (conj.). 
afternoon, tarde, f. ; in the , por 

la tarde. 

afterwards, despues. 
again, otra vez ; eat , volver a 


age, edad, f. ; siglo. 
ag'o: a year , hace un ano. 
agreeable, amable, agradable. 
air, aire, m. ; in the open , al 

Alas! Ay! 
Alexander, Alejandro. 

all, todo ; at , del todo ; right, 
Esta bien ; that, cuanto, todo 
lo que; day, todo el dia. 

allow, dejar, permitir. 

almost, casi. 

alms, limosna. 

alone, solo. 

already, ya. 

also, tambien. 

among, entre. 

amount, importe, m. ; cantidad, f. 

Alphonso, Alfonso. 

although, aunque. 

always, siempre. 

American, americano. 

and, y (e) ; not, ni. 

Anna, Ana. 

another, otro. 

answer, contestar (a), responder (a). 

anterior, anterior. 

Anthony, Antonio. 

antique, antiguo. 

anxiety, cuidado. [cualesquier(a). 

any, alguno ; at all, cualquier(a), 

apartment, habitacion, f. 

appear, parecer. 

appetite, apetito. 

apple, manzana. 

April, abril, m. 

arm, brazo. 

arrival, llegada. 

arrive (at), llegar (a). 

artery, arteria. 

as, tan, como ; for, en cuanto a 

ashamed : be , tener verguenza. 

aside; from, fuera de. 

ask, pedir (a), preguntar (5). 

assortment, surtido. 

assure, asegurar. 



at, a, en; last, al fin ; all, del 

todo ; once, luego. 
attention, atencion, f. ; pay to, 

hacer caso 4. 
August, agosto. 
aunt, tia. 

automobile, automovil, m. 
Autumn, otono. 

avail oneself of, aprovecharse de. 
awake, despertarse. 

back, espalda (n.), posterior (adj.). 

bacon, tocino. 

bad, malo. 

badly, mal. 

baggage, equipaje, m. 

bald, calvo. 

ball, pelota. 

bank, banco ; note, billete de 

bargain, regatear. 

bath, bano ; room, cuarto de 

bathe, banar (se). 

bazaar, bazar, m. 

be, ser, estar, haber (impers.); 
hallarse, encontrarse ; contained 
in, caber ; glad, alegrarse ; 
of advantage to, aprovechar; 
willing, querer; with, acom- 
pafiar; worried, apurarse. 

bean, frijol, m. (Mexico), judia 

bear, sufrir. 

beard, barba. 

beau, novio. 

beautiful, bello, hermoso. 

because, porque ; of, 4 causa de, 
con rnotivo de. 

become, hacerse, ponerse ; night, 

becoming: be , sentar bien, ir bien, 
caer bien. 

bed, cama. 

bed-clothes, ropa de cama. 

bedroom, alcoba. 

beef, carne, f. ; beefsteak, blsti, m. 

before, antes de (prep.), antes que 
(conj.) ; delante de; day yes- 
terday, antier; a year , hacia un 

beg, suplicar (a), pedir limosna. 

beggar, mendigo. 

begin, empezar (a). 

beginning, principle ; of June, 
principios de junio. 

behind, detras dc (prep.), atras, 

believe, creer. 

belly, vientre, m. 

below, bajo (prep.), abajo, ''adv.). 

best, mejor. 

better, mejor ; it is , vale mas ; 
be , estar mejor de salud ; to 
like , gustar mas. 

between, entre. 

bicycle, bicicleta. 

big, grande, grueso. [platos. 

bill, cuenta; of fare, lista de los 

birthday, cumpleanos, m. 

bit; little , un poquito. 

black, negro ; blackboard, pizarr6n, 

blessed, santo. 

blind, ciego. 

blood, sangre, f. 

blue, azul. 

board, comida. 

boarding-house, casa de huespedes. 

boat: by , por vapor. 

body, cuerpo. 

boil, cocer. 

bone, hueso. 

book, libro; bookseller, librero ; book- 
store, libreria; bookcase, armario. 

born: be , nacer. 

both, los (las) dos. 

bottle, botella. 

box, caja, cajita. 

boy, muchacho, nino, chico. 

brain, cerebro. 

Brazil, el Brasil. 

bread, pan, m. 

breadth, anchura, ancho. 

break, romper. 

breakfast, desayuno, desayunarse. 

breast, pecho. 

breath, breathing, respiraci6n, f. 

breathe, respirar. 

breeches, panta!6n, m. 

brick, ladrillo. 

bride, novia; bridegroom, novio. 



bright, claro; listo (of people). 

bring, traer ; up, subir. 

broad, ancho. 

broth, caldo. 

brother, hermano. 

build, construir. 

building, edificio. 

bull, toro ; bull-fighting, los toros ; 

bull-fighter, torero, 
business, asunto, comercio ; house, 

casa de comercio. 

busy, ocupado ; oneself, ocuparse. 
but, pero, sino. 
butcher, carnicero. 
butter, mantequilla, 
buy, comprar. 
by, por, de, a fuerza de. 

cab, coche, m ; cabman, cochero. 

cafe, cafe, m. 

calendar, calendario. 

call, llamar; be called, llamarse. 

Canada, el Canada. 

candy, dulces (m. pi.). 

cape, capa. 

capital, capital, f., corte, f. 

car, coche, m. [visita. 

card, tarjeta; visiting , tarjeta de 

care, cuidado; for, curar; I don't 

, No me importa, Lo mismo me 


careful: be , tener cuidado. 
carriage, coche, m. ; in a , en 

coche ; ride in a , pasearse en 
carry, llevar, transportar. [coche. 

case, caso. 
Castile, Castilla. 
catalogue, catalogo. 
catch, coger ; cold, constiparse, 

coger un resfriado. 
cathedral, catedral, f. 
cause, causa, motive. 
cellar, sotano. 
cent, centavo. 
center, centre, 
centime, centime, 
century, siglo. 
certain, cierto, seguro, tal. 
chair, silla. 
change, vuelta, vueltas; loose . 

suelto ; cambiar ; cars, cambiar 

de tren; clothes, cambiar de 


chapter, capitulo. 
characteristic, caracteristico. 
Charles, Carlos, 
cheap, barato. 
check, talon, m. ; facturar. 
cheerful, alegre. 
cheese, queso. 
chest, pecho. 
chicken, polio, 
chickpea, garbanzo. 
child, nino ; little , chiquillo. 
chin, barba. 

chocolate, chocolate, m. 
choice, selecto. 
choose, escoger. 
church, iglesia; in (at) , en la 

iglesia; to , a la iglesia. 
circumstance, caso. 
city, ciudad, f. [clase. 

class, clase, f. ; first , de primera 
clean, limpio, limpiar. 
clear, claro. 
clerk, dependiente. 
clever, listo. 
climate, clima, m. 
clock, reloj, m. 
close, cerrar. 
cloth, paiio (woolen), 
clothes, ropa ; soiled , ropa sucia ; 

clothes-press, armario. 
cloud, nube, f. 
coachman, cochero. 
coat: sack , chaqueta, 
cobbler, zapatero. 
codfish, bacalao. 
coffee, cafe, m. 
coin, moneda. 
cold, frio (n. 
collar, cuello. 
college, colegio. 
color, color, m. 
come, venir; in, entrar; into, 

entrar en; down, bajar; 

down in price, rebajar; upon, 

encontrar, hallar; up, subir; 

out, salir ; back volver ; 

in ! Adelante I 

adj.) ; constipado, 



comedy, comedia. 
comfort, comodidad, f. 
comfortable, comfortable, comodo. 
command, mandar. 
common, ordinario, corniin. 
companion, companero. 
company, convidados (plu.). 
complete, complete, 
completely, por complete, 
compose (of), componer (de). 
concerning, acerca de, con motive 


condiment, condimento. 
congratulate (on), felicitar (por). 
consequently, por consiguiente. 
considerably, bastante. 
consist (of), consistir (en), 
construct, construir. 
consult, consultar. 
contain, contener. 
contained: be in, caber, 
continue, seguir. 

contrary: on the , al contrario. 
convenience, comodidad, f. 
cook, guisar; cooking, cocina. 
cool, fresco, 
copper, cobre, m. 
Cordova, Cordoba, 
corner, esquina (outside) ; rinc6n, m. 


corridor, corredor, m. 
correspond, corresponder. 
cost, costar. 
costume, vestido, traje. 
cotton, algodon, m. 
cough, tos, f., toser. 
count, contar. 

country, pais, m. ; tierra, campo. 
couple, par, m. ; pareja (of persons) ; 

married , un matrimonio. 
court, corte, f. ; patio, 
course, curso ; of , por supuesto ; 

principal , principle, 
cousin, primo, -a. 
cover (by), cubrir (de). 
cow, vaca; cow-boy, vaquero. 
cross, cruz, f. ; cruzar. 
cry, grito, llorar. 
cup, taza. 
cupboard, armario. 

cure, curar. 

current, corriente; be , correr; 
month, mes actual. 

custom, costumbre, f. ; custom- 
house, aduana. 

cutler, cuchillero. 

cutlery store, cuchilleria. 

danger, peligro. 

dare, atreverse A. 

date, datar. 

daughter, hija. 

dawn, amanecer. 

day, dia, m. ; before yesterday, 

antier ; after to-morrow, pasado 

manana; every , todos los dias; 

during the , por el dia ; this 

very , hoy mismo. 
dead, muerto. 
deaf, sordo. 

deal: a great , mucho. 
dear, caro, querido. 
December, diciembre, m 
defer, diferir. 
degree, grado. 
delay, tardar. 
delicate, fino. 
dentist, dentista. 
departure, salida. 
depth, profundidad, f. 
design, modelo. 
desk, mesa de escribir. 
dessert, postres (m. plu.). 
devote (oneself to), dedicarse a. 
die, morir (se). 
difference, diferencia; make a , 

difficult, dificil. 
digest, digerir. 
digestion, digestion, f. 
diligent, aplicado. 

diminish, rebajar. [ntght). 

dine, almorzar (at noon), comer (at 
dining-room, comedor, m. 
dinner, almuerzo (at noon); comida 

(at night). 

dint : by of, a fuerza de. 
direct, dirigir. 

dirty, sucio ; make , ensuciar. 
dish, plato. 



dishevelled, despeinado. 

disobey, desobedecer. 

distance, distancia. 

distressed ; be , apurarse. 

divine, divino. 

do, hacer. 

Doctor, Doctor. 

doctor, medico. 

dog, perro, -a. 

dollar, duro, peso. 

door, puerta ; outer , portal, m. 

doubt, duda, dudar. 

downstairs, abajo. 

dozen, docena. 

drawer, cajon, m. 

dress, traje, m., vestido. 

dress, vestir (se). 

dressed in, vestido de. 

drink, bebida, beber. 

drug store, botica. 

dull, triste, sordo. 

dumb, mudo. 

during, durante, por. 

each, cada ; one, cada uno, cada 

cual ; other, uno a otro. 
ear, oreja. 
early, temprano ; five minutes , con 

cinco minutos de anticipacion. 
earn, ganar. 
earth, tierra. 
East, el Este. 
easy, facil. 
eat, comer. 

eatables, comestibles (m. plu.). 
Edward, Eduardo. 
egg, huevo. 
eighth, octavo, 
either . . . or, 6 ... 6. 
Emma, Manuela. 

employee, dependiente, empleado. 
empty, desocupado (unoccupied) ; 

end, fin, m. ; terminar, concluir, aca- 

bar; of March, fines de marzo. 
England, Inglaterra. 
English, ingles, -a. 
Englishman, ingles ; Englishwoman, 

ingles a. 
enjoy: oneself, divertirse. 

enough, bastante. 

enthusiastic (over), aficionado (a). 

entire, entero. 

entreat, suplicar (a). 

entry, corredor, m. 

envelope, sobre, m. 

equal, igual. 

especial especial. 

especially, sobre todo, especialmente. 

establish, establecer. 

estate, hacienda. 

Europe, Europa. 

even, ni, aun. 

evening, noche, f. ; in the , even- 
ings, por la noche ; every , todas 
las noches. 

every, cada, todo ; one, cada uno, 
cada cual ; day, todos los dias. 

everybody, todo el mundo. 

everything, todo. 

examine, registrar. 

example, ejemplo. 

except, excepting, fuera de, sino. 

excess, exceso. 

excessive, excesivo. 

exchange, cambio, cambiar. 

excuse, perdonar. 

exercise, ejercicio. 

expect, esperar. 

expense, gasto ; expensive, caro, 

exterior, exterior (as noun, m.). 

extreme, excesivo. 

extremely, muy, sumamente. 

eye, ojo. 

eye-glasses, anteojos (plu.). 

fail: to, dejar de. 

fall, caer ; down, caerse, 

family, familia. 

famous, famoso. 

fan, abanico. 

far, lejos; as as, hasta. 

face, cara. 

farm, hacienda. 

fashion, moda; be the , estilarse, 

fat, gordo. 

father, padre. 

fault, falta. 

favor, favor, m. 

fear, miedo, temer. 



feather, pluma. 

February, febrero. 

feel, sentir ; well, sentirse bueno ; 
I don't feel like it, No me da la 
gana ; the pulse, tomar ei pulso. 

feeling, tacto. 

fever, calentura. 

feverish: be , tener calentura. 

few, pocos, -as ; a , algunos, unos. 

field, campo. 

fifth, quinto. 

fiancS, -ee, novio, -a. 

fill, llenar. 

finally, al fin. 

find, hallar, encontrar. 

fine, magnifico, fino. 

finger, dedo ; ring , dedo anular ; 
middle , dedo del corazon ; in- 
dex , dedo indice ; littlt , dedo 

finish, acabar, terminar, concluir. 

first, primer (o), antes. 

fish, pescado; dealer, pescadero. 

fish-market, pescaderia. 

fist, puno. 

flee, huir. 

floor, piso. 

flour, harina. 

flower, flor, f. 

flushed, encendido. 

folks, gente, f. 

follow, seguir. 

following, siguiente. 

fond (of), aficionado 4. 

food, comestibles (m. plu.). 

foot, pie ; on , a pie. 

for, por, para, mediante- pues 

forbid, prohibir. 

fore, anterior. 

forehead, frente, f. 

foreign, extranjero. 

foreigner, extranjero, -a. 

forget, olvidar (de). 

forgive, perdonar. 

fork, tenedor, m. 

former, antiguo; the , aquel. 

fortnight, quince dias. 

fortunate, afortunado. 

forward, adelante. 

found, establecer. 

fourth, cuarto. 

France, Francia. 

free, libre. 

freeze, helar. 

French, frances, -esa. 

Frenchman, Frenchwoman, frances, 


frequently, a menudo. 
Friday, viernes, m. 
fried, frito. 
friend, amigo, -a. 
fiom, de; ... to, desde . . . 


front: in of, delante de. 
frontier, frontera. 
frost, hielo. 
fruit, fruta (picked), fruto (on the 

fun: make of, burlarse de. 

gain, ganar. 

gay, alegre. 

gender, genero. 

gentleman, seiior, caballero ; young 
, senorito. 

genuine, legitimo. 

German, aleman, -ana. 

Germany, Alemania. 

get, buscar (fetch); to, llegar a; 
up, levantarse; used to, 
acostumbrarse a ; a suit made, 
hacer hacer un traje. 

girl, muchacha, chica, nifia. 

give, dar ; a play, representar una 

glad: be , alegrarse. 

gladly, de buena gana : con mucho 

glass, vaso; vidrio (material). 

glove, guante, m. 

go, ir, andar; away, marcharse, 
irse, partir ; back, volverse ; 
down, bajar; in, entrar; in- 
to, entrar en ; out, salir ; up, 
subir ; towards, dirigirse 4 ; 
to walk, ir 4 paseo, dar un paseo ; 
to ride, pasearse en coche; 
over, repasar; to bed, acostarse. 

God, Dios. 



gold, oro ; golden, de oro. 

gone: be all , concluirse. 

good, bueno. 

Good bye, Adios. 

goodness, bondad, f. 

goods, generos (m. pi.) cotton , 

algodones, tejidos de algodon. 
grace, gracia. 

grade, grado ; nota (in school), 
grammar, gramatica. 
grape, uva. 
gray, gris. 
great, gran(de). 
green, verde. 
greens, verdura. 
greet, saludar. 
grocer, especiero. 

grocery, especieria. [dado, 

guest, huesped ; invited , convi- 
guide, guia. 

haggle, regatear. 

hair, pelo. 

half, medio (adj.) ; mitad (n. f.). 

hall, corredor, m. 

ham, jam on, m. 

hand, mano, f . ; of a watch, aguja. 

handkerchief, panuelo. 

handsome, hermoso. 

handwriting, puno, letra. 

happen, ocurrir ; to be, encon- 
trarse, hallarse. 

happy, feliz. 

bard, dificil ; work , trabajar ' 
mucho ; cough, fuerte tos ; 
cold, fuerte constipado. 

haste, prisa. 

hat, sombrero. 

have, tener, haber; to, tener que; 
on, tener puesto ; a head- 
ache, tener dolor de cabeza. 

head, cabeza. 

health, salud, f. ; in good , bueno 
de salud. 

healthy, sano. 

hear, oir, entender. 

hearing, oido. 

heart, corazon, m. 

heat, calor, f. ; cale&tar. 

heated, encendido, calentado. 

heaven, cielo. 

heel, talon, m. 

height, altura, alto. 

Hello! Holal 

help, ayudar; oneself, ayudarse. 

Henry, Enrique. 

here, aqui (place where), ac$ (place 

to which) ; is, aqui tiene Vd. 
hide, esconder (se). 
high, alto, 
higher, superior, 
hinder, posterior, 
hit, pegar. 
hog, cerdo. 
holy, santo. 
home, a casa (direction) ; en cas? 

(place where); at , en casa. 
homely, feo. 
hope, esperar. 
horrible, horrible, 
horse, caballo. 

horseback: on , 4 caballo. 
hose, calcetines (m. plu.). 
host, huesped. 
hotel, hotel, m. 
hour, hora. 

house, casa ; at the , en casa. 
how? c6mo? que7 que tal? de qu6 

modo? de que manera? 
how! comol que 1 cuanto 1 
how, como (rel.). 
how long? cuanto tiempo? 
how much? how many? cuanto, -a, 

-os, -as. 
how much, how many, cuanto, -a, 

-os, -as. 
however, comoquiera que (conj.), 

sin embargo (adv.). 
human, humano. 
hunger, hambre, f. 
hurry, darse prisa; be in a , tener 

hurt, dolor, doler; My hand hurts, 

Me duele la mano. 
husband, esposo, marido. 

ice, hielo; helado (to eat), 
ice-cream, helado. 

idea: The ! No faltaba masl Va- 



if, si ; not, sino. 

ill, malo, enfermo. 

illness, enfermedad, f. 

imagine, figurarse ; just , figurese 


immense, inmenso. 
importance, importancia. 
in, en, dentro de ; en casa ; de (after 
inch, pulgada. [superl.). 

inclination, gana. 
indeed! Si 1 Vayal 
indicate, indicar. 
inferior, inferior, 
infinitely, infinito. 
inflamed, encendido. 
information, informes (m. pi.), 
inhabitant, habitante. 
ink, tinta. 
inkstand, tintero. 
inside (of), dentro (de) ; interior, 

(m. as noun), 
insist (on), insistir, (en), 
instance; for , por ejemplo. 
instruction, instruccion, f. 
insure, asegurar. 
intend, pensar. 
interesting, interesante. 
interior, interior (m. as noun), 
intestines, intestines (m. pL). 
into, en. 

introduce, presentar. 
invite (to), invitar (a). 
Isidore, Isidro. 
Italy, Italia. 
Italian, italiano. 

jacket, chaqueta.. 
James, Diego, 
janitor, portero, -m. 
January, enero. 
jewel, alhaja. 
John, Juan. 
Joseph, Jose 1 , 
journey, viaje, m. 
July, julio. 
June, junio. 

keep, guardar ; on, seguir. 
kilogram, kilograrno, kilo, 
kind, amable (adj.); clase, f., 
especie, f., g6nero. 

kindness, amabilidad, '. 

king, rey. 

kiss, beso, besar. 

kitchen, cocina. 

knock, llamar. 

know, saber, conocer ; how, saber. 

knowledge, conocimiento. 

lace, encaje, m. 

lack, falta, faltar. 

lady, senora ; young , senorita. 

Jamb, cordero. 

lame, cojo. 

land, tierra ; native , patria. 

language, lengua, idioma, m. 

large, grande. 

larger, largest, mayor. 

last, ultimo, postrer(o) ; pasado 

(past) ; at , al fin ; night, 

late, tarde; five minutes iate, con 

cinco minutos de retraso. 
latter: the , este. 
laugh, reir(se) ; at, reirse de. 
lawful, lejitimo. 
lawyer, abogado. 
lazy, perezoso. 
leap-frog, saltacarnero. 
learn, aprender ; about, saber, 
learned, sabio. 
least: at , lo menos, 4 lo menos, 

por lo menos. 
leave, dejar, salir, partir, marcharse, 

irse ; off, dejar de. 
left, izquierdo ; on the , to the , 
leg, pierna. [a la izquierda. 

legitimate, legitimo. 
lemon, limon, m. 
lend, prestar. 

length, longitud, f. ; largo, 
less, menos. 
lesson, leccion, f. 
let, dejar, permitir. 
letter, carta ; box, buz6n. m. ; 

library, biblioteca. 

lie, mentira, mentir; down, acos- 
tarse ; on, estar en. 

life, vida. 
lift, levantar. 



light, claro; luz, f. (noun); encen- 

der (vb.). 

lighten, relampaguear. 
likeable, simpatico. 
limb, miembro (of body) ; ratna (of 

tree, etc.) 

linen, hilo, lienzo, ropa blanca. 
lip, labio. 
list, lista. 
listen, escuchar. 

little, poco (adv.); pequeno, '(adj.). 
live, vivir. 
liver, higado. 

loin, lomo. [cuanto tiempo? 

long, largo, mucho tiempo ; how ? 
look, mirar; at, mirar; for, 

buscar; like, parecer a; out 

on, dar a ; over, repasar ; Look 

out! Cuidado 1 
lose, perder. 

Louis, Louise, Luis, Luisa. 
love, amor, m. ; amar, querer. 
lovely, divino, precioso. 
low, bajo. 
lower, inferior, 
lunch, almuerzo, almorzar. 
lung, pulmon, m. 
lying, mentira. 

Madam, Senora. 

Madrid: of , madrileno. 

magnificent, magnifico. 

mail, correo; a^ letter, echar una 

carta al correo. 
majority, mayor parte. 
make, hacer ; fun of, burlarse de. 
mamma, mama. 

man, hombre ; alive! Hombre! 
manner, manera, modo. 
many, muchos, -as ; so , tantos, -as. 
March, marzo. 
mark, nota (in school), 
market, mercado. 
marry, casar, casarse cen. 
Mary, Maria, 
master, dueno. 

match, fosforo ; wax , cerilla. 
mathematics, matematica. 
matter, asunto, cosa ; to , impor- 

tar; dangerous , cosa de peligro. 

mature, maduro. 

May, mayo. 

meal, comida ; meals, la comida. 

mean, significar, querer decit. 

means: by of, mediante. 

meat, carne, f. ; market, carni- 

ceria. - 

medicine, medicina. 
meet, encontrar. 
melon, melon, m. 
member, miembro (of body) ; socio 

(of club, etc.). 

mention, mencionar, nombrar. 
message, recado. 
metal, metal, m. 
metre, metro. 
Mexico, Mejico. 
middle, centre ; in the of, en 

niedio de; of July, mediados 

de julio. 

midnight, medianoche, f. 
midsummer, esjie^jn. 
milk, leche, f. 
minute, minuto ; this very , ahora 


Miss, Senorita. 
mistake, error, m. 
mistaken: be , equivocarse. 
modern, moderno. 
moment, momento. 
Monday, lunes, m. 
money, dinero, moneda. 
month, mes, m. ; per , al mes. 
more, mas ; or less, poco mas 6 


morning, manana ; in tha , morn- 
ings, por la manana; become , 


most, mas, mayor parte de. 
mother, madre. 
motive, motive. 

mountain, montana; range, sierra, 
moustache, bigote, m. 
mouth, boca. 
move, andar, mover (se). 
much, mucho; very , muchisimo; 

so , tanto ; as as, cuanto, 

tanto como ; too , demasiado. 
muscle, miisculo. 
museum, museo. 



must, tener que. 
mute, mudo. 

name, nombre, m. ; nombrar ; What 
is your ? C6mo sc llama Vd. ? 
Cual es su gracia? 
napkin, servilleta. 
narrow, estrecho. 
national, nacional. 

native, natural (n.) ; land, patria. 
natural, natural, 
naughty, malo. 

near, cerca de; by, cerca. 
necessary, necesario, preciso. 
neck, cuello. 
necklace, collar, m. 
need, necesitar, hacer falta. 
needle, aguja. 
negro, negro. 

neighbor, neighboring, vecino, -a. 
neither, tampoco ; ... nor, ni 

... ni. 

nephew, sobrino. 
never, nunca, jamas ; in my life, 

en mi vida. 

nevertheless, sin embargo, 
new, nuevo. 
news, noticias (plu.) ; piece of , 


newspaper, periodico. 
next, proximo, siguiente. 
nice, simpitico. 
niece, sobrina. 

night, noche, f. ; at , por la noche ; 
last , anoche; every , todas 
las noches ; become , anochecer. 
ninth, nono, noveno. fnadie. 

no, no, ningun(o), tampoco; one, 
nobody, nadie, ninguno. 
noise, ruido. 
none, ningun(o). 
noon, mediodia, m. 
North, el Norte. 

North America, America dei Norte. 
nose, nariz, f. 

not, no ; ever, no ... nunca ; 
anything, no ... nada; any- 
body, no ... nadie; either, ni 
. . . ni, no ... tampoco. 
note, nota, notar. 

nothing, nada, no ... nada. 

notice, notar. 

noun, sustantivo, nombre. 

novelty, novedad, f. 

November, noviembre, m. 

now, ahora ; just , ahora mismo. 

number, numero. 

obey, obedecer (4). 
object, objeto. 
occupy, ocupar. 
occur, ocurrir. 
October, octubre, m. 
of, de. 

office, despacho, oficina. 
often, a menudo. 

Oh 1 Ay I [go diez anos. 

old, viejo ; I am ten years , Ten- 
older, oldest, mayor, 
olive, aceituna; oil, aceite, m. 
omelet, tortilla, 
omnibus, omnibus, m. 
on, en, con motivo de; have , 

tener puesto. 
once, una vez ; at , en seguida, 

one, uno, -a; each , cada uno, 

cada cual ; armed, manco ; 

eyed, tuerto. 
only, solamente, no mis que, no ... 

open, ahrir : ^ghierto (adj.); on, 

dar a. 
or, 6, u. 
orange, naranja. 
order, orden, f. ; mandar ; in to, 

para (with inf.), para que (with 

subj.) ; In that, para que. 
ordinarily, por lo comun. 
ordinary, ordinario. 
organ, organo. 
other, otro, demas. 
otherwise, de otra manera. 
Ouch 1 Ay ! 
ought, deber. 

out of (through), por; go out, salir. 
outcome, resultado. 
outer, exterior, 
outside, fucra (adv.) ; of, fuera 

de ; exterior n., m. 



over, sobre; be all , concluirse. 
overcoat, gaban, m. 
owe, deber. 
own, mismo. 
owner, dueno. 

package, paqucte, m. 

page, pagina. 

pain, dolor, m., doler. 

painting, pintura. 

pair, par, m. 

palace, palacio. 

palm, palma. 

pantry, despensa. [secante. 

paper, papel, m. ; blotting , papel 

pardon, perdon, m. 

Paris, Paris. 

parlor, sala. 

part, parte, f. 

pass, pasar. 

pattern, modelo. 

pay, pagar ; attention to hacer 

caso a. 

peach, melocoton, m. 
pearl, perla. 
peasant, aldeano. 
pen, pluma. 
pencil, lapiz, m. 
people, pueblo, gente, f., personas, 

f. plu. 
pepper, pimienta, (spice) ; pimiento, 

per, por; three times day, tres 

veces al dia; five pesos per day, 

einco pesos por dia. 
perfectly, perfectamente. [subj.). 

perhaps, quizas, tal vez (often with 
permit, dejar, permitir. 
person, persona, f. 
Peter, Pedro. 
Philip, Felipe, 
phrase, frase, f. 
physician, medico, 
pick, escoger. 
piece, bulto ; pedazo (broken) ; tro- 

zo (slice, etc.). 
pig, cerdo. 
place, punto, lugar (n. m.) ; poner 

plate, plato. 

play, comedia, n. 

play, jugar; jugar a (game); tocat 

(instrument) ; representar (show), 
plaything, juguete, m. 
pleasant, agradable, simpatico. 
please, gustar, placer, hacer el favor, 

tener la bondad, servirse 
pleasure, gusto, placer, m. 
plenty: a , bastante. 
point, punto. 
policeman, guardia, m. 
polite, cortes; ly, corte~smente. 
pomegranate, granada. [salud. 

poor, pobre; in health, malo d 
pork, carne de cerdo. 
porter, mozo. 
postal, postal. 

Portuguese, portugues, -esa. 
possible, posible. 
post-office, correo. 
postpone, diferir. 
potato, patata. 
pound, libra. 
pour, echar. 
prefer, preferir. 

prepare, preparar. [actualmente. 

present, actual; at the time, 
prescription, receta. 
president, presidente. 
pretty, bonito. 
price, precio. 
priest, cura. 
principal, principal, 
print, imprimir. 
private, particular, 
probable, probable, 
profession, profesion, f. 
professor, catedratico. 
profit, aprovechar. 
prohibit, prohibir. 
proprietor, amo, -a. 
proverb, refran, m. 
promise, prometer. 
public, piiblico. 
pulse, pulso. 

punish, castigar. [no (of a school), 
pupil, discipulo (of a teacher) ; alum- 
purchase, compra. 
pure, puro. 
put, poner ; on, ponerse. 



quantity, cantidad, f. 

quarter, cuarto. 

queen, reina. 

question, preguntar ; ask a , hacer 

una pregunta. 
quite, bastante. 

railroad, ferrocarril, m. 

rain, lluvia, Hover. 

rainy, lluvioso. 

raise, levantar. 

ranch, hacienda. 

rare, raro. 

reach, llegar a. 

read, leer. 

reading, lectura. 

ready, listo. 

real, legitimo. 

rear, posterior. 

recall, acordarse de, recordar. 

receipt, receta; recibo (for payment). 

receive, recibir. 

recitation, clase, f. 

red, encarnado. 

recommend, recomendar. 

remove (from), quitar (a), sacar 


regret, sentir. 
relate, contar. 
relative, pariente, -ta. 
remain, quedar. 
remedy, remedio. 

remember, acordarse de, recordar. 
remind, recordar. 
republic, republica. 
resemble, parecer a. 
resort: bathing , banos. 
responsibility, responsibihdad, f. 
rest, descansar. 
rest, demas. 

restaurant, restauran, m. 
result, resultado. 

return, regreso, vuelta ; volver(se). 
review, repasar. 
rich, rico. 
ride, paseo ; take a , pasearse (en 

coche, a caballo, en automovil, en 

right, derecho ; on the , to the , 

4 la derecha; be , tener raz6n. 

ripe, maduro. 

road, camino: be on the right to, 

ir bien para, 
roast, asar ; meat, asado ; beef, 

rosbif, m. 
roof, tejado. 

room, habitacion, cuarto. 
rotten, podrido. 
royal, real, 
rowdy, pillo. 
ruin, arruinar. 
rule, regla. 
run, correr ; away, huir. 

sad, triste. 

safe, seguro. 

Saint, San, m., Santa, L 

salad, ensalada. 

salt, sal, f. 

same, mismo ; it's all the to me, 

lo mismo me da. 
sample, muestra. 
satisfied, contento. 
Saturday, sab ado, m. 
save, salvar; guardar (keep), 
saw, sierra, 
say, decir; good bye, despedirse, 

decir adios ; I should sol Ya 

lo creo 1 
scamp, pillo. 

school, escuela; boarding , colegio. 
science, ciencia. 
sea, mar, m. 
season, estacion, f. 
seat, asiento. 
seated, sentado. 
second, segundo (adj. and n.) 
see, ver; let's , a ver. 
seek, buscar. 
seem, parecer. 
select, selecto, escoger. 
self, mismo. 
sell, vender, 
seller, vendedor. 
send, enviar, mandar. 
sense, sentido. 
sentence, frase, f. 
September, setiembre, m. 
servant, criado, -a ; servidor, A 
serve, servlr. 



seventh, septimo, setimo. 

several, algunos, -as. 

Seville, Sevilla. 

shade, sombra; in the , a la som- 


shame, vergiienza. 
sharp, agudo. 
shawl, manta. 
sheet, sabana. 
shelf, estante, m. 
shirt, camisa. 
shoe, zapato ; dealer, zapatero ; 

store, zapateria. 
shop, tienda. 
short, corto ; bajo (of people) ; in , 

en fin. 

shortly, luego. 
should, deber (ought), 
shoulders, espaldas (f. plu.). 
shout, grito. 
show, indicar, mostrar, ensenar ; 

window, escaparate, m. 
shower, aguacero. 
shut, cerrar; cerrado (adj.). 
sick, enfermo, malo. 
side, lado ; on the other , al otro 


sideboard, aparador, m. 
sidewalk, acera. 
sight, vista, 
signify, significar. 
silent, rnudo, silencioso. 
silk, seda ; silken, de seda. 
silver, plata. 

sin, pecado ; pecar (vb.). 
since, desde (prep.) ; desde que 

sing, cantar. 
sister, hermana. 
sit: down, sentarse. 
sitting-room, despacho. 
sixth, sexto, sesto. 
skill, habilidad, f. 
skin, cutis, m. 
skull, craneo. 
sky, cielo. 

sleep, sueno, dormir. 
sleeve, manga, 
slender, delgado. 
slice, trozo. 

slowly, despacio. 

smell, olfato . (sense) ; oior, m. 


small, chico, pequeno. 
smaller, smallest, menor. 
smart, listo. 
smoke, fumar ; a pipe, fumar en 


sneeze, estornudar. 
snow, nieve, nevar. 
so, tan (adv.) ; asi, por consiguiente 

(conj.) ; and , conque. 
society, sociedad, f. 
some, algun(o), -a, -os, -as; or 

other, alguno que otro. 
something, algo, alguna cosa. 
somewhat, algo. 
son, hijo. 
soon, luego, pronto, en seguida, al 

instante; as - as, luego que; as 

as possible, cuanto antes, 
sorry: be , sentir. 

soul, alma. 

soup, sopa. 

sour, agrio. 

South, el Sur. 

South America, America del Sur, 

Sud America. 
Spain, Espafia. 
Spaniard, espanol, -a. 
Spanish, espanol, -a. 
speak, hablar. 
species, especie, m. 
spectacles, anteojos, pi. 
speech, habla. 
speed, velocidad, f. 
spell, rato. 
spend, gastar, pasar. 
spice, especia. 
spinal, espinal ; column, aspinazo ; 

cord, medula espinal. 
splendid, magnifico. 

spoil, arruinar. 
spoon, cuchara. 
Spring, primavera. 
square, plaza; cuadrado (adj.). 
stairs, escalera. 
stamp, sello. 

standing: of long , antiguo ; up, 
de pie. 



state, estado. 

station, estacion, f. 

Etay, estancia ; quedar (se) ; in 

bed, guardar cama. 
steam, vapor, m. 
steamer, vapor, m. ; rug, manta 

de viajs. 
stew, cocido. 
stick, pegar. 
still, todavia. aun, aun. 
stock, surtido. 

stomach, estomago, vientre, m. 
stone, piedra. 
stop, parar, dejar de. 
store, tienda ; department , bazar, 

m. ; keeper, tendero. 
story, piso (of a house) ; cuento 

(that is told), 
stout, gordo. 
straight, directo. 
straw, paja. 
strawberry, fresa. 
street, calle, f. ; State St., calle del 

ttreet-car, tranvia, m. ; in a , en 


strike, dar, pegar. 
strong, fuerte. 
student, estudiante. 
study, estudio, estudiar. 
stuff, (woven), tejido, tela. 
style, moclelo, moda (fashion) ; be in 

, estilarse; in the Spanish , a 

la espanola., such a, tal, (plu. tales), 
suffer, sufrir. 
sugar, azucar, m. 
suit, vestido, traje, m. 
summer, verano. 
sun, sol, m. ; in the , al sol. 
Sunday, domingo. 
superior, superior. 

sure, cierto, seguro ; to be , claro. 
surprise, sorprender. 
sweet, dulce; sweets, dulces, m. plu. 
sweetheart, novio, -a ; corazon, alma, 

vida (in address). 

table, mesa ; table-cloth, mantel, m. 
tailor, sastre. 

take, tomar, quedarse con, llevar ; 

off, quitar; up, subir ; out, 


talk, hablar. 
tall, alto, grande. 
taste, gusto, 
tea, te, m. 
teach, ensenar. 
teacher, maestro, -a. 
tear, romper, 
teaspoon, cucharilla. 
teaspoonful, cucharadita. 
telegram, telegrama, m. 
telegraph, telegrafiar. 
telephone, telefono, telefonar. 
tell, decir, contar; lies, mentit. 
temperature, temperatura. 
tenth, deciino. 
terrible, horrible. 

than, que, de, del que, de lo que. 
thank, agradecer, dar las gracias; 

thanks, gracias. 
that, que (conj. or rel.) ; which, 

lo que. 

the . . . the, cuanto . . . tanto. 
theatre, teatro. 
then, entonces, pues. 
there, alii (place where); alii (place 

to which) ; is, hay. 
thermometer, term6metro. 
thick, grueso. 
thickness, espesura. 
thin, delgado. 
thing, cosa ; to worry about, cosa 

de cuidado. 
think, creer, pensar. 
third, tercer(o). 
thirst, sed, f. 
thread, hilo. 
throat, garganta. 
through, por. 
throw, echar. 
thumb, dedo pulgar. 
thunder, trueno, tronar; storm, 

tempestad, f. 
Thursday, jueves, m. 
thus, asi, de esta manera. 
ticket, billete, m. 
tight, estrecho. 



time, tiempo, rato, vez, f. ; from 
to , de vez en cuando : at the 
presen^-^ , en este momento, en 
el momento actual ; What is it? 
iQue hora esX, have a good , 

tired, cansado; be , e^tar cansado. 

tiresome: be , ser cansado. 

to, a 

toast, tostadas (f. plu.). 

tobacco, tabaco ; store, esfanco. 

toe, dedo del pie; big , dedo 
grande del pie. 

to-day, hoy. 

tomato, tomate, m. 

to-morrow, manana. 

tongue, lengua. 

together, juntos, -as. 

to-night, esta noche. 

too, much, demasiado. 

tooth, diente m. ; muela (molar). 

towards, hacia. 

towel, toalla. 

town, lugar, m. ; pueblo. 

toy, juguete, m. [tren mixto. 

train, tren, m. ; accommodation , 

translate, traducir. 

transport, transportar. 

travel, viajar, andar. 

traveler, viajero. 

traveling-bag, maleta. 

treat, tratar. 

tree, arbol, m. 

trip, viaje, m. 

trouble, molestia, molestar ; have 
heart , estar enfermo del cora- 

trousers, pantalon, m. 

trout, trucha. 

true, verdadero. 

trunk, baul, m. ; tronco. 

truth, verdad, f. 

try, tratar de. 

Tuesday, martes, m. 

turn, volver. 

twice, dos veces. 

two, dos ; the , los (las) dos. 

ugly, feo. 

umbrella, paraguas, (m. s.). 

unbecoming: be , sentar mal, ir 

mal, caer mal. 
uncle, tio. 
under, debajo de. 
underclothes, ropa interior, 
understand, comprender, entender. 
unfortunately, desgraciadamente. 
united, unido ; the States, los 

Estados Unidos. 
university, universidad, f. 
unless, sin que, si no. 
unmarried, soltero, -a. 
unoccupied, desocupado. 
unripe, verde. 
until, hasta (prep.) ; hasta que 


up: to, hasta. 
upon, en, sobre. 
upper, superior, 
upstairs, arriba. 
use, uso, emplear ; be used to, acos- 

tumbrar a. 
utensil, utensilio. 

various, varies, -as. 

veal, ternera. 

vein, vena. 

velvet, terciopelo. 

verb, verbo. 

very, muy ; I am cold, Tengo 

mucho frio. 

vice versa, vice versa, 
view, vista, 
village, pueblo, aldea. 
villager, aldeano, lugareno 
vinegar, vinagre, m. 
visit, visita, visitar ; be on a , estar 

de visita. 
vital, vital, 
voice, voz, f. 

wait, esperar, aguardar. 

waiter, mozo, camarero. 

wake, despertar ; up, despertarse. 

walk, paseo ; andar a pie ; take a , 

pasearse, dar un paseo. 
want, querer, desear, tener ganas. 
wardrobe, armario. 
warm, caliente. 
wash, lavar (se). 
waste, gastar. 



watch, mirar ; reloj, m. ; maker, 

relojero ; maker's, relojeria. 
water, agua. 
way, modo, manera ; in this , de 

este modo, de este manera, asi; 

in another , de otra manera ; in 

what ? de que manera? to be on 

the right for, ir bien para; this 

, por aqui; what ? por d6nde? 

a long off, lejos; a long , 

mucha distancia. 
weak, debil. 

wearing (dressed in), vestido de. 
weather, tiempo. 
Wednesday, miercoles, m. 
week, semana; a ago, hace una 

weigh, pesar. 
weight, peso. 

well, bien (adv.); pues (conj.). 
West, el Oeste. 
what? que? como? cual? 
what, lo que (rel.). 
whatever, lo que, cualquiera cosa 


when? cuando? 
when, cuando. 

whenever, cuandoquiera que. 
where? donde? 
wherever, dondequiera que. 
whether, si. 
which? cual? 

which, que, el que, el cual. 
whichever, cualquiera que. 
while, mientras que (conj.); rato 


white, bianco, 
who? quien, quie'nes? 
who, que. 

whoever, quienquiera que. 
whole, todo, entero. 
wholesome, sano. 
whom? a quien? 
whose? de quien? cuyo? 
whose, cuyo. 
why? por qu6 (cause) ; para qu 

(purpose) ; a que (with vb- of 


why, si. 

wicked, feo, malo. 

wide, ancho. 

widower, widow, viudo, -a. 

width, anchura, ancho. 

wife, niujcr, esposa, senora. 

will, querer. 

wind, viento. 

window, ventana. 

win, ganar. 

wine, vino. 

winter, invierno. 

wish, desear, querer. 

with, con. 

within, dentro (adv.) ; dentro de 


without, sin (prep.); sin que (conj.). 
woman, mujer. 

wood, madera ; wooden, de madera. 
wool, lana ; woolen, de lana. 
word, palabra. 

work, trabajo (n.) ; trabajar. 
world, mundo. 
worry, apurarse ; don't , pierda 

Vd. cuidado. 
worse, worst, peor. 
worth: be , valer; How much is 

this ? ^Cuanto vale esto? 
wrapper, sobre, m. 
write, escribir. 
writing-table, mesa de escribir. 

yard, vara (measure). 

yam, hilo. 

year, ano ; three times a , tres 

veces al ano. 
yellow, amarillo. 
yes, si. 

yesterday, ayer. 
yet, todavia, aun, aun ; not , aun 

no, todavia no. 
young, ioven ; man or woman, 

joven ; chap, mozuelo. 
younger, youngest, menor. 

zero, cero. 


i before personal obj., 56, 180; with 
prepositional form of personal 
pron., 66; with indirect cbj., 24; 
expresses "and" after ir, 62 a ; with 
verbs meaning "to ask," "buy," 
150; with names of places, 63. 

abbreviations: D., Da., Si., Sra., 95 
note ; V., VV., 27 c. 

acabar, use, 120. 

accent, 7-8 ; on adverbs in -mente, 
1553; on verb forms taking ob- 
ject pron. as suffix, 65, 113 note. 

acordarse and recordar, 213. 

acostumbrarse a, to express habitual 
action, 72 a. 

acute accent, 7-8. 

adjectives: agreement, 33, 58; num- 
ber, 34 ; gender, 35 ; position, 36, 
in, 192; used as nouns, 37; lose 
final letter, in, 193; comparison, 
94, 174, 175; of nationality, 373; 
of quantity, 36 a ; vary in mean- 
ing used with ser or estar, 47 B, 
d, note b. 

adverbs: in -mente, 155; comparison, 
i73 174; si and no, 182; nunca, 
jamas, 181, ni, tampoco, 232, aun, 

age, with tener, 40 ; with mayor and 
menor, 219. 

agradecer, use, 148. 

agreement, of pronoun with verb, 27 ; 
of adj. with noun, 33, 58. 

hi with infinitive, 85 a, b. 

alphabet, i ; names of letters, p. 8. 
andar: conj., 525; contrasted with 

ir, 205. 
antiguo, 220. 
article: see indefinite article, and 

definite article. 
asir: conj., 526. 
aun, 197. 

auxiliaries : ir, 62 a ; haber, 43, 503 ; 
estar, 504 ; ser, 207, 503 ; not to 
be separated from verb, 44 a. 

"by," after a passive, 207 a. 

caber: conj., 527. 

cada, cada uno, cada cual, 194 a. 

caer: conj., 528; use, 234. 

capital letters, 9. 

cardinal points, 145. 

causative construction, 161. 

ciento loses -to, 1 56 a. 

comparison: of adjectives, 94, 174. 
175; of adverbs, 173, 174! see 
"than," 175. 

compound tenses, 44, 502. 

concluir: conj., 523; use, 218. 

conditional: forms and use, 90, 91, 
128, I78b. 

conditional perfect: 93, 172 c : i78b. 

conditions: in general, 128 note; ex- 
pressed by pres. part., 97; con- 
trary to fact, 128, 1720. 

conjunctions: ni, 232; sino, 195; y 
(e), p. 101, note; 6 (u), 2323; 
that take subj., 133- 

conocer: conj., 513; contrasted with 
saber, 1443. 

consonants, 4, 5, 12 f. 

correlatives: the former . . . the lat- 
ter, 153; the more . . . the more, 
221 ; ni . . . ni, 232. 

continued action: expressed by pres- 
ent, 22 ; imperfect, 70 b ; see also 

cual, 80. 
cualquiera, 147- 
cuyo, 176. 

dar: conj., 530; in idioms, 196. 
days of the week, 131. 
deber: use, 30 b; takes directly de- 
pendent in fin., 105. 



decir: conj., 531. 

defective verbs, 548. 

definite article: forms and agree- 
ment, 15; contractions, 15 b; used 
with adj., used substantively, 37; 
with names of countries, 82 ; with 
names of languages, 37 a; with 
titles, 95 ; with names of seasons, 
131; with cardinal points, 145; in 
substitute poss. expressions, 50, 53 ; 
for poss. with parts of the body, 
89 ; with indir. obj. to express 
poss., 169; with nouns used in 
general sense, 152; with abstract 
nouns, 152 a; with infinitives, 
152 b; with noun in app. with a 
personal pron., 183 ; with expres- 
sions of physical characteristic, 
214; in time expressions, 132; for 
personal or demonst. pronoun, 154; 
with modified names of countries 
or people, 238 ; with escuela and 
casa, 63 ; in expressing puce, 228 ; 
omitted before noun in app., 119; 
omitted before numeral after a title, 
236 a ; omitted with poss. pron. in 
the predicate, 52 a ; neuter lo, 
1173; lo used with todo, 1890. 

dejar, 212. 

demonstrative adjectives: forms and 
use, 59. 

demonstrative pronouns: forms and 
use, 60 ; neuter, 1170; as correla- 
tives, 153. 

desear: with infin., 105. 

desde (que) in time expressions 
187 e. 

dimensions, 235. 

diminutive suffixes, 231. 

diphthongs, 3. 

distance, with haber, 146. 

"do," auxiliary: 22, 250, note: 182. 

Don, Do5a, 93. 

-ducir: conj., 529. 

endings of the verb, 19; complete 

table of, 501. 
estar: conj., 532; contrasted with 

ser, 47 ; as auxiliary, 504. 

feminine : see gender. 

future indicative, 90, 91 ; irregular, 
92; expresses conjecture, 178 b. 

future perfect indicative, 93, 178 b. 

future perfect subj., 172, 1720. 

future subjunctive, 138, 139, 140; ir- 
regular, 141. 

gender: or nouns, 13; of adjectives, 


greetings, Ex. XXI. 
gustar: use, 68. 

haber: conj., 533; as auxiliary, 43, 
502 ; impersonal, 43 a ; expresses 
distance, 146; expresses impersonal 
obligation, 163; with de and inf., 
163 a. 

hacer: conj., 534; causative use, 161; 
in time expressions, 187; expresses 
weather, 137. 

hacer falta: use, 168. 

imperative: 142, 222; subjunctive 
used for, 122, 222 b. 

imperfect indicative, 69, 70. 

imperfect subj., 125; use, 126; in 
conditions, 128; irregular, 127. 

impersonal verbs, 202 ; impersonal 
use of 3d pers. plural, 81 ; with 
indirect obj., 190; with subj., 102. 

inceptive verbs, 513. 

indefinite article: forms, 16; repeat- 
ed, i6a; omitted with predicate 
noun, 96 ; in certain exclamations, 
204 ; in expressions of a general 
character, 216; with otro, 194; 
may not follow tal, 171 ; used with 
cualquiera, 147. 

indefinite pronouns and adjectives : 
negative, 135; cualquiera, 147; 
uno, 151; tal, 171; todo, 189; otro, 
194; cada, 194 A; reciprocal use 
of uno a otro, 200. 

indicative: contrasted with subj., 99. 

infinitive, 18, 19, 20 ; equivalent to 
Kng. pres. part, after prepositions, 
85; with para, 31; dependent on 
verbs, 105 ; after expressions of 
quantity and que, 136; preceded 
by article, I52b; after hacer and 
mandar, 161. 



interrogative pronoun: qu6 and cull, 

80; cuyo, 176. 
interrogative words: come first in 

sentence, 32. 
ir: conj., 535; use, 623, 234, 504; 

contrasted with andar, 205. 
irregular past participles, S-<9. 
irregular verbs, 512-550. 
"it," 38 note ; 47 B, d. 

jamas, 181. , 

joven, 220. 

jugar: conj., 51 (5; use, 226. 

language, names of, 37 a. 
leave-taking, Ex. XXI. 
list of irregular verbs, 540. 

mandar: used causatively, 161 a. 
mayor, menor, 219. 
mil, millon, is6b. 
mismo, 112. 
money, 227. 

moods: see name of mood. 
months, 131. 

"must:" expressed by tener que, 
30 a. 

nada, nadie, 135. 

nationality : adjectives of, 37 a ; suf- 
fixes indicating, 239. 

negative words: nada, nadie, nin- 
guno, 135 ; nunca, jamas, 181 ; ni, 
tampoco, 232 ; no, 182. 

neuter, 117; relative pron., 160; per- 
sonal pron. ii7b. 

ni, 232. 

ninguno, 135; loses o, in. 

no, 25 note; 182. 

nouns: gender, 13; number, 14, note 
to vocab. XXIX; special- use of 
masc. plu., 54; special use of sing., 
237 ; does not vary in form for 
case, 231; formation of poss., 17; 
as indirect object, 24; as personal 
object, 56, 68, 180; expression of 
material, etc., 55, 191 ; may not 
be omitted in possessive const., 
57 ; collective nouns, 203 ; see suf- 

number: of nouns, 14; of adjectives, 

numerals: cardinal, 39, 87, 156; or- 
dinals, 236. 

nunca, 181. 

6, u, 6 ... 6, 232. 

obligation : expressed by tener que, 

30 a; haber, 163; by deber, 30 b 
oir: conj., 536; use, 188. 
orthographical changing verbs, 73, 

otro, 194. 

para : with indirect obj., 24 ; with 

infin., 31; with prep, form of pers. 

pron., 116 c. 
parecer: use 168. 
participle: see present participles and 

past participles, 
passive, 503, 207 ; passive absolute 

const., 208 ; reflexive subst. for, 

2IO, 211. 

past definite indie., 69, 70 ; irregular 


past participle: see 42, 44; in com- 
pound tenses, 502 ; in passive, 207, 
503 ; with estar, 209 ; in absolute 
const., 208 ; with que and past 
def., I7gb; irregular, 549. 
perfect indicative, 44. 
perfect subjunctive, 172, 172 a. 
perfect of the past def., 179. 
personal objective, 56, 68, 180. 
personal pronouns : 

subject forms : 26, 27 ; omission, 
28 ; intimate forms, 27 a ; usted, 
27 b, c, d; nos, vos, 199 a; neu- 
ter ello, 1 1 7 b. 

prepositional forms: 61 ; used with 
regular object forms, 66, 115; 
used alone as object, 116; neu- 
ter, ello, ii7b; used reflexively, 
76 a. 

object forms: 64; use, 64 note; 
position, 65, 113, 121 b, 122, 
2223, b; double const., 66, 115; 
used reflexively, 76, 77; used in- 
definitely, 162; superfluous use 
of, 83 a ; indirect obj. used to ex- 



press possession, 169; indirect 
obj. with impersonal verbs, 190; 
dative of interest, 1990; neuter 
forms, 117 b. 

pluperfect indicative, 74. 

pluperfect subjunctives, 172, 172 b. 

plural : see number. 

poder: conj., 537; takes dependent 
infm., 105. 

poner: conj., 538; use, 170 a. 

position: of obj. pronouns, 65, 113, 
121 b, 122, 222 a, b; of reflexive 
pronoun, 77. 

possession expressed by def. art. and 
indirect obj., 169. 

possessive adjectives : forms, 48 ; 
use, 49 ; substitutes for su, 50 ; 
the long forms, 167; art'icle used 
in place of, 89. 

possessive pronoun: forms, 51; use, 
52 ; substitutes for el suyo, 53 ; 
neuter, 117 d. 

predicate adj. : position in interrog. 
sentence, 41. 

prepositions : general statement, 
235 A; before dependent infin., 
105; clauses introduced by, 165; 
never omitfed before noun as in- 
direct obj./ 24, note. 

present indicative, 21, 22; used for 
future ft past, 178*. 

present participles : 45 ', with clause 
equal ' to condition, 97 ; used in 
progressive conjugation, 47 A, c, 
72 and 504. 

present subjunctive, 100; use, 103; 
used for imperative, 122, 222 b. 

price, idiomatic expression of, 228. 

primero; loses o, in. 

progressive conjugation : see 47 a, c ; 
72 ; 504. 

prometer: use, 224. 

pronoun: see personal pronoun, pos- 
sessive pronoun, demonstrative 
pronoun, interrogative pronoun, rel- 
ative pronoun, indefinite pronoun. 

pronunciation, 1-12; irregularities of, 
1 1 ; exercises in, page 7. 

punctuation, 10. 

purpose: with para and inf., 31; 

with para que and subj., 133. 
que, 80. 
querer : conjugated, 539 ; use, 67 b ; 

takes dependent infin., 105. 
quisiera, 129. 

radical-changing verbs, 106-109:505- 

reciprocal conjugation, 200. 

reflexive prorfouns : forms, 76 ; posi- 
tion, 77. 

reflexive verbs, 75, 78; used imper- 
sonally, or for the passive, 79, 

regular verbs, 500-511. 

reir: conj., 5223. 

relative pronouns: que, 157; quien, 
158; el que and el cual, 160; 
cuyo, 1763; never omitted, 157 

saber: conj., 510; contrasted with 
conocer, 144. 

salir: conj., 541. 

se reflexive: position, 113. 

se substitute pronoun, 114. 

seasons, 131. 

sentar: use, 234. 

Senor, Senora: in address, 184. 

ser: conj., 542; compared with estar, 
47 ; in giving dimensions, 235 a ; 
as auxiliary, 207, 503 ; used imper- 
sonally, 1 02. 

should, 30 b. 

si, 182. 

sino, 195. 

some, any : not expressed, note, p. 
21 ; unos, 151 ; obj. pronoun, 162. 

stress and accent, 7 ; stress in pres. 
indie., 21 note; on imperfect and 
past definite, 69, note i ; in fu- 
ture subj., note to 138; in imper- 
ative, 142 note; in future and 
cond. indie., 90 note; in pres. 
subj., too note. 

subjunctive: in general, 98, 99. 
in dependent clauses: subject, 102; 
object, 101, 149, 161, 166; ad- 
verb, 133, 201 ; adjective, 134. 



in main clauses: 121; used for 

imperatives, 122, 222 b. 
after certain verbs, 101, 102, 
149, 166, 161 ; after certain con- 
junctions, 133, 201; after rela- 
tives, 134; in alternative expres- 
sions, 20 1 ; introduced by que 
only, 121 ; in conditions con- 
trary to fact, 128, 172 c. 
suffixes: -ero, 229; -eria, 230.; -ito, 
-illo, -uelo, 23 1 ; -arfo, -en, -ino, 
-es, 239. 

superlative without comparison, 174. 
syllabification, 6. 

tal, 171. 

tampoco, 232. 

tener: conj., 543; use, 29; auxiliary 
tener que, 30 a ; expresses age, 40 ; 
physical or mental condition, 86 ; 
in giving dimensions, 235. 

tenses : see names of tenses ; irreg- 
ularities in use of, 178; sequence 
of tenses of the subjunctive, 103, 
126, 140, 172. 

tercero: loses o, in. 

"than," 175. 

time expressions with hacer, 187. 

time telling, 88, 196. 

todo, 189. 

traer : conj., 344. 

tripthongs, 3 d. 

-uir verbs, 523. 

unclassable irregular verbs, 524-547. 
uno, 151; loses o, 39 note, 
usted, 27, b, c, d ; 64, note 3. 

valer: conj., 545. 

venir: conj., 547; as auxiliary, 504. 

\er: conj., 546; use, 188. 

verbs : 500-550. 

the regular verb, 500-511. 

irregular verbs, 512-550. 

orthographical-changing verbs, 33, 

radical-changing, 106, 514; first 
class, 107, 515-519; second class, 
108, 520; third class, 109, 522. 

-uir verbs, 523. 

inceptive verbs, 513. 

irregular, unclassable, 524-547. 

defective, 548. 

irregular past participles, 549. 

reflexive, 75-78, 79, 210, 211. 

reciprocal, 200. 

impersonal, 202. 

list of most irregular verbs, 440. 
verdad, 164. 
volver : use, 225. 
vowels, 2, 12 b, 3. 

weather, with hacer, 137. 

willingness: expressed by querer, 
67 b. 

word-order, affirmative, 25 a ; inter- 
rogative, 25 b, 32, 41 ; negative, 
25 c ; see position. 

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